Agripedia

How to increase Wheat Yield

The two main yield components of wheat are - grain numbers per unit area and the individual grain weight. High yield can be achieved by increasing the correct leaf and shoot numbers and maintaining a green leaf canopy, increasing grain numbers/ear and grain size. It was in European countries, where the yield of wheat was found to be increased by 120 bushels per acre during in 2013 which was relatively high. After studying their various areas of increase we found few relevant ways by which the yield in wheat can be increased: 

  1. Careful selection of seed treatments:

Seed treatment is an important stage which affects the overall growth of crop as it is the foremost step involved which will protect plants from diseases leading to the longer lifespan and ultimately good yield and growth. A wide range of insecticides, fungicides, and chemicals are available in the market which can be used but what is important is the proper selection of the same for better results. Fungicide seed treatment can control loose smut, Fusarium seedling blight and both common and flag smut whereas treating seeds with insecticides have not payed off very much. 

  • Loose smut: Treat the seed with Tebuconazole @ 1g/kg seed or Vitavax@ 2 g/kg or  Bavistin @ 2.5 g/kg seed for the control of loose smut. Seed treatment should be done with seed treating drum. Seed treatment should also be done with T. viride @ 4 g / Kg seed in combination with carboxin (Vitavax 75 WP) @ 1.25 g / Kg seed or Tebuconazole (Raxil 2 DS) @ 1.0 g / Kg seed. Seed treatment with T. viride alone @ 4 g / Kg seed is also helpful as it reduces the rust severity. 
  • Flag smut: To control  flag  smut,  treat  the  seed  before  sowing  with Thiram @ 3 g/kg or Tebuconazole 1g/kg or Vitavax@ 2 g or Bavistin @ 2.5 g/kg seed. 
  • Other diseases:Treat the seed with Captan or Thiram @ 3 g/kg seed for the control of root rot, foot  rot,  seedling blight, black tip and black spot of glumes. Captan and   Thiram treatment   should  not  be  done  earlier  than  one month of sowing as it affects seed germination. 
  • Treat the seed before sowing with Trichoderma  viride @4 g/kg seed. It provides induced systemic resistance, thus reducing the severity of the yellow rust at later growth stages of the crop. 
  • In the termite prone areas, seed treatment with chlorpyriphos @ 0.9g ior Endosulfan @ 2.4g a.i/kg seed, be taken up for their management.  Seed treatment with thiamethoxam  70WS (Cruiser 70WS) @ 0.7 g a.i./kg seed or Fipronil (Regent 5FS @ 0.3 g a.i./kg seed) is also very effective. 
  • The IPM module involves the seed treatment with T. viride (@4g/kg seed) + carboxin (75WP) @1.25g/kg seed) or Tebuconazole (@ 1.0g/kg seed) for the control of loose smut, followed by broadcast of insecticide-treated soil (with endosulfan 35 EC @ 2.3L or chlorpyriphos @  3L/ha) at   15 DAS for termites. 
  • Ear cockle: The infested seed lot should be floated in 2 percent brine solution for this purpose. The galls will float on the surface. These should be separated and destroyed away from the field by burning. The seed should be thoroughly washed to remove the salt solution before sowing.
  1. Maintaining green canopy

The green canopy of wheat can be maintained by providing  the proper balance of nitrogen, magnesium and sulphur. Chlorophyll is nitrogen and magnesium rich protein helpful in maintaining the green canopy of crop by providing nutrition. Sulphur acts as a source of protein by providing nourishment to plants.  Therefore providing nitrogen in exact amount required for good photosynthesis can increase the yield on a good scale meanwhile providing sulphur which can also provide strength to the growing plants.  On the other side magnesium is equally important as it is the central element in the structure of chlorophyll. Thus by maintaining proper balance of nitrogen, magnesium and sulphur will increase the growth and strength of plants thereby increasing the yield.

  1. Maintaining Potassium level

Potassium is an important component for the growth as it inhibits premature wilting and a lodged canopy. Due to the decrease in potassium level in plants, the straw of wheat becomes more brittle and thereby increases the risk of lodging that dramatically decreases productivity. The demand for potassium in high as it is required in higher amount especially during the spring season. Between the beginning of tillering and the end of tillering wheat crop needs on an average 7.7 kg K2O/ day. The required amount should be applied for the good growth.

  1. 4. Recognising diseases affecting the crop

Source: Kisan Suvidha 

Wheat Leaf Rust /Brown Rust: Puccinia recondite 

Symptom: 

  • The pustules are circular or slightly elliptical, smaller than those of stem rust, usually, do not coalesce, and contain masses of orange to orange-brown Urediospores.
  • Infection sites primarily are found on the upper surfaces of leaves and leaf sheaths and occasionally on the neck and awns.
  • Survival: Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops.
  • Alternate host: Thalictrum
  • Spread: uredospores from hills.

Management: 

  • Mixed cropping with suitable crops.
  • Avoid excess dose of nitrogenous fertilizers.
  • Spray Zineb at 2.5 kg/ha or Propioconazole @ 0.1 %.
  • Grow resistant varieties like PBW 343, PBW 550, PBW 17

Wheat Stem Rust: Puccinia graministritici 

Symptom: 

  • Pustules (containing masses of urediospores) are dark reddish brown – occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes
  • Pustules are usually separate and scattered, heavy infections -coalesce
  • Prior to pustule formation, “flecks” may appear. Before the spore masses break through the epidermis, the infection sites feel rough to the touch
  • As the spore masses breakthrough, the surface tissues take on a ragged and torn appearance
  • Survival: Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops
  • Alternate host: Berberis spp.
  • Spread: uredospores from hills.

Management: 

  • Mixed cropping and crop rotation
  • Avoid excess nitrogen
  • Sulphur dusting @ 35-40 kg/ha
  • Mancozeb @ 2g/lit
  • Resistant varieties 
  • Lerma Rojo, Safed Lerma,
  • Sonalika and Choti

Wheat Stripe Rust/Yellow Rust:Puccinia striiformis 

Symptom: 

  • The pustules of stripe rust, which, contain yellow to orange-yellow urediospores, usually form narrow stripes on the leaves
  • Pustules also can be found on leaf sheaths, necks, and glumes.
  • Survival: Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops
  • Alternate host: unknown
  • Spread: uredospores from the hill.

Management: 

  • Mixed cropping and crop rotation
  • Avoid excess “N”
  • Sulphur dusting @ 35-40 kg/ha
  • Mancozeb @ 2g/lit
  • Resistant varieties 
  • Lerma Rojo, Safed Lerma,
  • Sonalika and Chotil

Wheat Loose Smut: Ustilago tritici 

Symptom: 

  • The entire inflorescence, except the rachis, is replaced by masses of smut spores.
  • These black teliospores often are blown away by the wind, leaving only the bare rachis and remnants of other floral structures.

Management: 

  • Treat the seed with Vitavax @ 2g/kg seed before sowing.
  • Burry the infected ear heads in the soil so that secondary spread is avoided.

 

Wheat Powdery mildew: Erysiphe graminis var. tritici 

Symptom: 

  • Greyish white powdery growth appears on the leaf, sheath, stem and floral parts.
  • Powdery growth later becomes black lesion and cause drying of leaves and other parts.

Management: 

  • Spray Wettable sulphur 0.2% or Carbendazim @ 500 g/ha.


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