The Royal Commission of Agriculture on the status of India’s agricultural and rural economy in 1926, made comprehensive recommendations, in its report submitted in 1928, for the improvement of agrarian economy as the basis for the welfare and prosperity of India’s rural population.
The net sown area in erstwhile British India is believed to be 91.85 million hectares and cattle including buffaloes numbered 151 million. Almost 75 per cent of the cultivated area was under cereals and pulses, with rice and wheat occupying 46 per cent of the net sown area. The area under fruits and vegetables was about 2.5 per cent and that under oilseeds and non-food crops was about 20 per cent. In the ensuing years, as well known, the country underwent vast changes in its political, economic and social spheres.
Independent India appointed a National Commission on Agriculture in 1970, to review the progress of agriculture in the country and make recommendations for its improvement and modernization. This Commission released its final report in 1976, and referred to agriculture as a comprehensive term, which included crop production together with land and water management, animal husbandry, fishery and forestry.
Agriculture, in 1970 provided employment to nearly 70 per cent of the working population. The role of agriculture in the country’s economic development and the principle of growth with social justice, were core to the discussions. The country was then facing a high population growth rate. After impressive increase in agricultural production in the first two Five Year Plans, a period of stagnancy set in and the country suffered a food crisis in the mid-1960s. The report in fifteen parts, suggested ample focus on increased application of science and technology to enhance production.
Thirty years hence, the National Commission for Farmers was constituted in 2004 to suggest methods for faster and more inclusive growth for farmers. The Commission made comprehensive recommendations covering land reforms, soil testing, augmenting water availability, agriculture productivity, credit and insurance, food security and farmers competitiveness. In its final report of October 2006, the Commission noted upon ten major goals which included a minimum net income to farmers, mainstreaming the human and gender dimension, attention to sustainable livelihoods, fostering youth participation in farming and post-harvest activities, and brought focus on livelihood security of farmers. The need for a single market in India to promote farmer-friendly home markets was also emphasized.
The impressive agricultural growth and gains since 1947 stand as a tribute to the farmers’ resilience to multiple challenges and to their grit & determination to serve and secure the nation’s demand for food and raw material for its agro-industries. It is an irony, that the very same farmer is now caught in the vortex of more serious challenges.
The Hon’ble Prime Minister shared the vision of doubling farmers’ income with the nation at his Bareilly address on 28th February, 2016. Further, recognizing the urgent need for a quick and time-bound transformation of the vision into reality, a time frame of six years (2016-17 to 2022-23) was delineated as the period for implementation of a new strategy. At the basic level, agriculture when defined as an enterprise comprises two segments – production and post-production. The success of production as of now amounts to half success, and is therefore not sustainable.
The strategy platform is built by the following four concerns:
Notwithstanding the many faces of challenges, India’s agriculture has demonstrated remarkable progress. It has been principally a contribution of the biological scientists, supplemented by an incentivizing policy framework.
This will free the resources, as also time for the biological scientists to focus on new science and technology, that will shift production onto a higher trajectory - one that is defined by benchmark productivities & sustainability.
However, henceforth both production & marketing shall march together hand in hand, unlike in the past when their role was thought to be sequential.
The complexity & challenges of agriculture and the nuances of an appropriate strategy in realizing the vision of Doubling Farmers’ Income by the year 2022, the year India’s celebrates its 75th Independence Day.
The prime focus is to Revolutionize Indian Agriculture and revitalize1. Green Revolution, 2. White Revolution and 3. Blue Revolution
Key initiatives and policies towards achieving the vision of doubling farmers’ income by 2022
The National Farmers Commission was constituted in February 2004. After that, the National Policy for Farmers was approved on the basis of the Commission's recommendations in the country, which aimed at improving the economic condition of agricultural sector as well as the net income of the farmers. The task of accelerating this work is as follows -
(A) Model Agricultural Land Leasing Act, 2016 issued to States, which is a very important step in terms of agricultural reforms through which not only the needs of landlords but the needs of the lease holders are also taken care of. Through this act, land holders can legally lease the land with mutual consent for agriculture and allied sectors. It is also noted that under any circumstances, no claim on the agricultural land of the lease holder will be valid.
From the point of view of the lease recipient, it has been taken care that it is provided institutional credit, insurance and disaster relief, so that they can invest more and more agriculture.
(B) In April 2016, a new entrance process for revolutionizing agricultural markets started by introducing transparency and competition, by ensuring better value search under national agricultural market scheme (e-NAM).
(C) Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Simplification) Act, 2017 has been released on April 24, 2017 for adoption by the States/UTs. Which comprises of e-business, the announcement of warehouses, silos, cold storage in the form of sub-yard, rationalization of mandis duty and commission charges and improvements in private sector.
In 2018, an amount of two thousand crores rupees has also been proposed through NABARD for the development of 22,000 rural agricultural markets in the country. It is clear here that in relation to the National Agricultural Market, the implementation of the suggestion given after the year 2004 was also done within these 4 years.
(D) Government has revised them after a detailed study of old schemes and has started the world's largest farmer friendly crop insurance scheme i.e. Pradhan Mantri FasalBima Yojana and Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme. By 2019-20, 50 percent of the gross cropped area is to be covered.
(E) Enhanced substantial increase in the adoption of micro irrigation has been recorded. Compound annual growth rate of micro irrigation (MI) coverage is 15 percent. During the year 2017-18, about 9.26 lakh hectare area has been brought under MI, which is the maximum coverage so far received in a calendar year. The target is to cover 1.5 to 2 million hectare per year by year 2022-23. In addition to the increase in budgetary allocation, a corpus fund of 5,000 crore has also been set up.
(F) National Agro-Forestry Policy has been prepared for increasing the income of farmers and for achieving climate support. During the year 2016-17, a special scheme "Agriculture Forestry Sub-mission" was started and operated with the aim of "Har Medh Par Pedh". Exemption in transit regulations for assistance under the Agriculture Forestry Sub-Mission is a pre-requisite. 21 states (8 states in year 2016-17 and 12 states in the year 2017-18) have given exemption to this regulation and all the states are being motivated in this direction.
(G) The reconstituted National Bamboo Mission- National Bamboo Mission (NBM) was initially started as a centrally sponsored scheme in the year 2006-07 and brought it under the Integrated Horticulture Development Mission (MIDH) during the year 2014-15. And was continued till the year 2015-16.
This scheme is mainly limited to the cultivation and promotion of bamboo due to limited weather and purification units and bamboo market. The main drawbacks of this scheme were lack of contact between producers (farmers) and industries.
The Indian Forest Act, 1927 was amended last year, from which the bamboo sown outside the forest area has been removed from the definition of 'trees' and the implementation of National Bamboo Mission reorganized with the outlay of Rs.1290 crore is also being done.
(H) Government has started the largest Universal Soil Health Card scheme in the world to provide information on the fertility of the land to the farmers on the basis of tested soil samples according to 12 parameters.
A study shows that due to the recommendations of the Soil Health Card, due to the application of fertilizer and micro nutrients, a decrease of chemical fertilizer application has been found ranging from 8 to 10 percent and the total crop production has increased by 5-6 percent.
(I) Traditional Agricultural Development Scheme (PKVY) - PKVY is being implemented with the objective of encouraging organic farming in the country. It will improve soil health and biological content and increase the net income of farmers so that premium values can be identified. The progress of targeted 50 acres (2015-16 to 2017-18) is remarkable. Now it has been started on cluster base (about 1000 hectares).
It is worth noting that on the recommendation of National Farmers Commission to promote sustainable agriculture, it was also institutionally and systematically implemented in the recent years.
(J) Central Regional Scheme has been introduced by identifying the potential of organic farming in the North Eastern Region of the country. Biological Value Chain Development Mission (MOVCDNER) for the North East Region. The Northeast is being developed as the biological center of India.
(K) The present government has released Model Contract Farming and Services Act, 2018 in 2018, which for the first time has been added to the country's food additives farmers and agro-based industries. Through this act, where a young farmer can get good prices for the farmers, the losses will also be reduced after harvesting. Besides, employment opportunities will also be created in rural areas. Through this, FPA / FPC will be promoted.
Food Security to Nutritional Security
India declared to celebrate the Year 2018 as “National Year of Millets” Production of Millets in an attempt to provide nutritional security & prevent malnutrition, especially to the poor in the Country.
The joint efforts of the Central and State Governments and the hard work of farmers will not only increase the production of Millets - 'Coarse Cereals’, but also help prevent illnesses caused due to the lack of nutritious elements in diet. Millets include Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, little millets include Kutki, Kodo, Sawa, Kangni and Cheena. They are tolerant to drought, are photo insensitive and are resistant to climate change. The cultivation of millets requires less water than the cultivation of rice and wheat.
Millets are cultivated in low-fertile land, mountainous, tribal and rain-fed areas. These areas include Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. In the pre-Green Revolution era, in 1965-66, millets were cultivated in 36.90 million hectares. In 2016-17, the area under millet cultivation declined to 14.72 million hectares (60% less coverage area) due to change in consumption pattern, dietary habits, unavailability of millets, low yield, less demand and conversion of irrigated area for cultivation of rice and wheat. As a result of this, nutrients like protein, Vitamin-A, iron and Iodine levels fell in women and children. Production of millets will definitely help in providing nutritional value, especially to the poor. Besides providing nutritional security, it also helps in preventing malnutrition.
NITI Ayogon October 13, 2017 recommended to promote millets viz. Jowar, Bajra, Ragi through PDS across the country to improve nutritional content in the diet of people. On the basis of the recommendations of NITI Ayog, it has been decided to create a sub mission on Nutri cereals instead of the existing NFSM-Coarse Cereals. National Food Security Mission (NFSM) -Coarse Cereals are divided into two components: NFSM (Makka and Jau) and Sub Mission on Nutri-Cereals covering Jowar, Bajra, Ragi and little millets like Kutki, Kodo, Sawa, Kangni and Cheena.
Agriculture to Horticulture
The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, released the 2017-18(2nd Advance Est.) of Area and Production of Horticulture Crops, based on the information received from different States/UTs in the country.
Following table summarizes the All- India Final Estimates: 2016-17 and 2017-18(2nd Advance Estimates):
% change of 2017-18
(2nd Adv. Est.)
Second Adv. Est.
Area (‘000 Ha)
As per the 2nd Advance Estimates prepared on the basis of information received from State Departments of Horticulture / Agriculture and various agencies like Directorate of Arecanut& Species Development (DASD), Directorate of Cashew & Cocoa Development (DCCD) and National Bee Board (NBB) the total horticulture production of the country is estimates to be 307.2 Million Tonnes during 2017-18 which is 2.2% higher than the previous year and 8.6% higher than the past 5 year’s average production.
The Production of fruits is estimated to be about 94.4 million tonnes which is about 2% higher than previous year production of vegetables is estimated to be about 182 million tonnes which is about 2.2% higher than previous year. Onion production in the current year is likely to be around 218 lakh Tonnes in 2016-17(Final) which when compared to 5 years average is about 8% higher. Potato production is estimated at 503 Lakh Tonnes as against 486 lakh Tonnes in 2016-17 (Final) which is about 3.5% higher than the previous year. Tomato production in the current year is likely to be around 220 lakh Tonnes as against 207 lakh Tonnes in 2016-17 (Final Est.) which is about 6.6% higher than the previous year.
Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan
Krishi Kalyan Abhiyan undertakes various activities to promote best farming practices and enhance Agricultural income
The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare in line with the Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of doubling farmers’ income by 2022, launched the Krishi kalyanAbhiyaan from 1st June, 2018 till 31st July, 2018 so as to aid, assist and advice farmers on how to improve their farming techniques and raise their incomes. The Krishi kalyanAbhiyaan will be undertaken in 25 Villages with more than 1000 population each in Aspirational Districts identified in consultation with Ministry of Rural Development as per directions of NITI Ayog. In districts where number of villages (with more than 1000 population) is less than 25, all villages are expected to be covered.
Various activities to promote best practices and enhance agriculture income are being undertaken under this plan such as:-
In addition, demonstration programs on Micro Irrigation and Integrated Cropping Practice will also take place so as to familiarize farmers with the latest techniques and how they can be incorporated at the grass root level.
Training programs are being conducted in each of the villages by ICAR/KVSs for Bee Keeping, Mushroom cultivation and Kitchen garden. Women participants and farmers will be given preference for the training program.
Farmers efforts towards making India a global leader in Milk production
Milk production in the country increases by 23.69% in 2014-18 as compared to 2010-14 Productivity is one of the biggest challenges and efforts are being made to increase milk production by raising productivity of milch animals
During the last four years under Rashtriya Gokul Mission 20 Gokul Grams have been sanctioned and out of this 3 have been completed and work is under progress at remaining 17 gokul grams. Two National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres one in southern India in Andhra Pradesh at Chintaladevi and other in northern India in Madhya Pradesh at Itarsi are being established. Work at AP has been completed and work is under progress at Itarsi MP.
Under advanced reproductive techniques, 20 Embryo Transfer centres are being established against which proposals for 18 centres have been approved. 10 semen centres have been identified for production of Sex Sorted Semen. Two proposals have been sanctioned. With this more female animals would be produced that would help in raising milk production farmers income.
E PashuHaat Portal has been developed and a till date on e pashuhaat portal total of 7.63 Crore Semen doses has been produced, 5.57 Crore semen doses have been sold and information about 80,059 Live Animals is available on the portal.
Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme has a provision to provide financial assistance for generating self-employment opportunities in various activities. Under the scheme, 3,30,125 dairy units have been set up so far for which Rs. 1338.31 crore subsidy has been provided by the Government of India. It has benefited about 6.60 lakh beneficiaries.
In the current year “Dairy Processing and Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)” with a total outlay of Rs.10881 Crore where Cooperatives will be provided loans at 6.5% annual interest to be repaid within a period of 10 years has been launched. Government of India has made a provision of offering interest subsidy. This scheme targets to benefit 95 lakh milk producers through coverage of 50000 villages. Many skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers would get direct or indirect employment opportunity under the scheme. Under this scheme, additional milk processing capacity of 126 lakh litres per day with 210 tonnes milk drying capacity per day and 140 lakh litres of milk chilling capacity per day will be created by establishment of bulk milk coolers. The scheme also has a provision for 28000 electronic milk adulteration testing equipment and the facilities to convert 60 lakh liters of milk per day into value-added milk products. So far during current year, 10 projects of Rs. 1148 crore have been approved.
India makes unprecedented progress in coconut cultivation from mid-2014 to 2018 &has become the leading country in coconut production and productivity
India has made unprecedented progress in coconut cultivation from mid 2014 to 2018 and now it has become the leading country in coconut production and productivity. Productivity increased to 11516 fruits per hectare in 2017-18 as compared to 10122 in 2013-14. Between 2014 and 2018, 13,117 hectare was brought under new plantation as compared to 9,561 hectare during 2010-2014.
Owing to an increase in production of coconut, India has been exporting coconut oil to Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka since April 2017. Till March 2017, India was importing coconut oil. Also, for the first time India has been exporting dry coconut in large quantities to the U.S and European countries. In 2017-18, India exported coconut worth Rs 1602.38 crore while imports stood at Rs 259.70 crore.
In coconut producing states, 62403 hectares have been brought under scientific coconut farming methods as compared to 36477 hectare in 2010-14. It is noteworthy that coconut cultivation has spread in new areas. In various states, 13117 hectare new area was brought under coconut cultivation till 2014-18 which was only 9561 hectare in 2010-14.
In 2014-18, 5115 coconut production committees, 430 Coconut Growers' Federation and 67 coconut producing companies have been constituted which in 2010-14 was 4467, 305 and 15 respectively. The income from export of coconut products stands at Rs 6448 crore during 2014-18 as against Rs 3975 crore in 2004-2014. Under the skill development program for coconut sector ‘Friends of Coconut Tree’, 33228 unemployed youths have been trained as compared to 27770 in 2004-14.
Continuation of Umbrella Scheme ‘Green Revolution — Krishonnati Yojana’ in Agriculture Sector
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, has given its approval for the Umbrella Scheme, "Green Revolution – Krishonnati Yojana" in agriculture sector beyond 12th Five Year Plan for the period from 2017-18 to 2019-20 with the Central Share of Rs. 33,269.976 crore.
The Umbrella scheme comprises of 11 Schemes/Missions. These schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic and scientific manner to increase the income of farmers by enhancing production, productivity andbetter returns on produce. The Schemes will be continued with an expenditure of Rs.33,269.976 crore for three financial years, i.e., 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20.
(i) Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) with a total central share of Rs. 7533.04 crore, MIDH aims to promote holistic growth of horticulture sector; to enhance horticulture production, improve nutritional security and income support tofarm Households.
(ii) National Food Security Mission (NFSM), including National Mission on Oil Seeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP), with a total central share of Rs.6893.38 crore. It aims to increase production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops, through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a suitable manner in the identified districts of the country, restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level and enhancing farm level economy. It further aims to augment the availability of vegetable oils and to reduce the import of edible oils.
(iii) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) with a total central share of Rs.3980.82 crore. NMSA aims at promoting sustainable agriculture practices best suitable to the specific agro-ecology focusing on integrated farming, appropriate soil health management and synergizing resource conservation technology.
(iv) Sub-mission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE) with a total central share of Rs.2961.26 crore. SMAE aims to strengthen the ongoing extension mechanism of State Governments, local bodies etc., achieving food and nutritional security and socio-economic empowerment of farmers, to institutionalize programme planning and implementation mechanism, to forge effective linkages and synergy amongst various stake-holders, to support HRD interventions, to promote pervasive and innovative use of electronic / print media, inter-personal communication and ICT tools, etc.
(v) Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP) with a total central share of Rs.920.6 crore. SMSP aims to increase production of certified / quality seed, to increase SRR, to upgrade the quality of farm saved seeds, to strengthen the seed multiplication chain, to promote new technologies and methodologies in seed production, processing, testing etc., to strengthen and modernizing infrastructure for seed production, storage, certification and quality etc.
(vi) Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) with a total central share of Rs.3250 crore. SMAM aims to increase the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low, to promote ‘Custom Hiring Centres’ to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership, to create hubs for hi-tech and high value farm equipment, to create awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities, and to ensure performance testing and certification at designated testing centers located all over the country.
(vii) Sub-Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine (SMPPQ) with a total central share of Rs.1022.67 crore. SMPPQ aims to minimize loss to quality and yield of agricultural crops from the ravages of insect pests, diseases, weeds, nematodes, rodents, etc. and to shield our agricultural bio-security from the incursions and spread of alien species, to facilitate exports of Indian agricultural commodities to global markets, and to promote good agricultural practices, particularly with respect to plant protection strategies and strategies.
(viii) Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics and Statistics (ISACES) with a total central share of Rs. 730.58 crore. It aims to undertake the agriculture census, study of the cost of cultivation of principal crops, to undertake research studies on agro-economic problems of the country, to fund conferences/workshops and seminars involving eminent economists, agricultural scientists, experts and to bring out papers to conduct short term studies, to improve agricultural statistics methodology and to create a hierarchical information system on crop condition and crop production from sowing to harvest.
(ix) Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC) with a total central share of Rs. 1902.636 crore. It aims to provide financial assistance for improving the economic conditions of cooperatives, remove regional imbalances and to speed up - cooperative development in agricultural marketing, processing, storage, computerization and weaker section programmes; to help cotton growers fetch remunerative price for their produce through value addition besides ensuring supply of quality yarn at reasonable rates to the decentralized weavers.
(x) Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM) with a total centralshare of 3863.93 crore. ISAM aims to develop agricultural marketing infrastructure; to promote innovative and latest technologies and competitive alternatives in agriculture marketing infrastructure; to provide infrastructure facilities for grading, standardization and quality certification of agricultural produce; to establish a nationwide marketing information network; to integrate markets through a common online market platform to facilitate pan-India trade in agricultural commodities, etc.
(xi) National e-Governance Plan (NeGP-A) with a total central share of 211.06 crore aims to bring farmer centricity & service orientation to the programmes; to enhance reach & impact of extension services; to improve access of farmers to information &services throughout crop-cycle; to build upon, enhance & integrate the existing ICT initiatives of Centre and States; and to enhance efficiency & effectiveness of programs through making available timely and relevant information to the farmers for increasing their agriculture productivity.
The Schemes/Missions focus on creating/strengthening of infrastructure of production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied produce. These schemes / missions have been under implementation for varying duration during past few years.
All these schemes/missions were appraised and approved independently as separate scheme/mission. In 2017-18, it has been decided to club all these schemes / missions under one umbrella scheme 'Green Revolution - Krishonnati Yojana'.
Restructured National Bamboo Mission
National Bamboo Mission (NBM) started as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in 2006-07, was mainly emphasizing on propagation and cultivation of bamboo, with limited efforts on processing, product development and value addition. There, was weak linkage between the producers (farmers) and the industry. The restructured proposal gives simultaneous emphasis to propagation of quality plantations of bamboo, product development and value addition including primary processing and treatment; micro, small & medium enterprises as well as high value products; markets and skill development, thus addressing the complete value chain for growth of the bamboo sector.
National Bamboo Mission (NBM) was initially started as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in 2006-07 and was subsumed under Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) during 2014-15 and continued till 2015-16. Funds were released thereafter only for maintenance of bamboo plantations raised earlier under NBM, and no new work or annual action plan was initiated. Since 2006-07, an area of 3.62 lakh ha covered under bamboo plantations and 39 bamboo wholesale markets, 40 bamboo bazaars and 29 retail outlets were set up.
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs ( CCEA ), approved a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Bamboo Mission (NBM) under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) during remaining period of Fourteenth Finance Commission (2018-19 & 2019-20). The Mission would ensure holistic development of the bamboo sector by addressing complete value chain and establishing effective linkage of producers (farmers) with industry.
CCEA has also approved Empowerment of Executive Committee for formulation of guidelines of the NBM and to make the changes therein, including cost norms for various interventions from time-to-time as per the felt needs and specific recommendations of States, with the approval of Union Minister for Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.
An outlay of Rs.1290 crore (with Rs. 950 crore as Central share) is provisioned for implementation of the Mission during the remaining period of 14th Finance Commission (2018-19 and 2019-20).
The scheme will benefit directly and indirectly the farmers as well as local artisans and associated personnels engaged in bamboo sector including associated industries. Since it is proposed to bring about one lakh ha area under plantation, it is expected that about one lakh farmers would be directly benefitted in terms of plantation.
The Mission will focus on development of bamboo in limited States where it has social, commercial and economical advantage, particularly in the North Eastern region and States including Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
The Mission is expected to establish about 4000 treatment/ product development units and bring more than 100000 ha area under plantation.
Bamboo plantation will contribute to optimizing farm productivity and income thereby enhancing livelihood opportunities of small & marginal farmers including landless and women as well as provide quality material to industry. Thus, the Mission will not only serve as a potential instrument for enhancing income of farmers but also contributing towards climate resilience and environmental benefits. The Mission will also help in creating employment generation directly or indirectly in both skilled and unskilled segments.
The restructured NBM strives to -
(i) To increase the area under bamboo plantation in non forest Government and private lands to supplement farm income and contribute towards resilience to climate change.
(ii) To improve post-harvest management through establishment of innovative primary processing units, treatment and seasoning plants, primary treatment and seasoning plants, preservation technologies and market infrastructure.
(iii) To promote product development at micro, small and medium levels and feed bigger industry.
(iv) To rejuvenate the under developed bamboo industry in India.
(v) To promote skill development, capacity building, awareness generation for development of bamboo sector.
The following steps would be adopted for the development of bamboo sector:
III. Mission has been developed as a platform for integration of Ministries/ Departments/Agencies with implementation responsibilities given based on their mandate.
Cooperative Movement in India,is One of the Biggest Cooperative Movements in the World- Approx. 8 Lakh Cooperative Societies in India
The cooperative movement had first started in a village in Gujarat and the movement led to the enactment of Cooperative Credit Societies Act, 1904.
The importance to implement Pradhan Mantri FasalBima Yojana in State’s through cooperative societies and help affected farmers because most of the state’s agriculture sector is totally dependent upon monsoon. The Government has taken concrete steps for the revival of Cooperative Societies to transform them into a dynamic, democratic organization, so that they can face the challenges of a competitive global economy. The importance of cooperative societies in improving rural economy, the Government is committed to boosting cooperative societies through various programs.
Modern cooperatives have attained a comprehensive shape during the 112-year journey. Indian cooperative movement is one of the biggest cooperative movements in the world. There are 8 lakh cooperative societies in India, which includes the cooperative organization at the village and national levels. The membership of cooperative societies in the country is more than 274 million and it includes 95% villages and 71% rural families.
States can develop tourism, transport, handloom, fruits and vegetable farming, cultivation of medicinal plants, flower farming etc. through cooperatives. There is a huge market for these commodities not only in India, but abroad as well.