Health care starts with good animal husbandry. Livestock production is greatly affected by diseases. Proper knowledge of these diseases is a must to minimize agencies involved in animal health care programmes. Thus every stock owner should have in mind, as they imperil not only his own stock, but also those of his neighbors.
Major diseases affecting goats depending upon the causal organisms are classified as (A) bacterial diseases, (B) viral diseases, (c) metabolic diseases, and (d) parasitic diseases
In this article we will discuss about the various bacterial diseases that affects goats and we will take forward the discussion to the remedy of those diseases :
BACTERIAL DISEASES :
6. Contagious agalactia
Symptoms of this disease are fever and loss of appetite. Other symptoms may include: (1) acute mastitis exhibited as a hot, painful udder producing a greenish-coloured. Cheesy, puslike material (chunks) and a watery fluid with the udder drying up in long term cases: (2) a cloudy cornea of the eye that may proceed to an ulcer and blindness although complete recovery usually occurs quickly, and (3) an arthritic form with hot painful swollen joints.
Contagious agalactia is a disease of sheep and goats caused by Mycoplaslna agalactia. The organism is found in milk, urine, faeces, eye, and nasal fluids for several months after infection. Spreading may occur when an healthy goat contacts these secretions.
Helpful antibiotics are tetracycline or tylosin which are given intramuscularly. The death rate can reach 20% of the infected animals. A vaccine is available in some countries.
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
Severe pneumonia symptoms may involve only one lung. Exposed animals may become sick and a high percentage of them die. Recovery requires a long time. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is caused by Mycoplasma spp. and is common in Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean and has also been reported in Mexico. The disease is spread by contact.
Early treatment with tetracyclines or tylosin will help to reduce death loss in infected animals. Prevention by vaccines are usually available in countries where this disease is found.
Lamness is the first symptom of foot rot. The sole and the sidewall of the diseased foot appear ragged and rotten and have an extremely bad odour.
This disease is caused by the invasion of two bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorus and Fusiformis nodosus the disease is usually spread from infected carrier animals into the soil and then to the non-infected feet.
Remove the dead, rotten foot tissues with shears or a sharp knife. Trim down until healthy tissue is found. Some bleeding will occur. This is necessary to remove the diseased tissue. Spray the area with a solution of chloram phenicol or 10% formalin, or force the animals to walk through a 10% formalin, copper sulphate or zinc sulphate foot bath.
The best method of prevention is to remove animals from dirty and wet areas for about 4 weeks. Regular trimming of the feet also help prevent this and other foot problems.
This is a very serious disease of animals including sheep and goats. It is also known as paratuberculosis or wasting disease. Johnes disease is usually seen in animals, 3 to 5 years old. Symptoms include progressive loss of weight rough hair coat decrease of milk production, decreased appetite, and progressive depression. A diarrhoea will develop within the last few days before death. The organism affects the area where the small and large intestine join together and interferes with the ability of the goat to absorb nutrients from the intestine. Usually only a few goats in the herd are involved.
The disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium johnei is believed to spread through feed contaminated with the organism and occurs before the goat is 6 months old. There is some evidence that kids can be born with the disease or pick it up from the doe's or faecal contamination on the udder.
There is no effective treatment. Diagnosis can be made in a laboratory by finding and growing the organism. The IV John test can be run in the field but requires some knowledge of the procedure and of how to make white blood cell count.
As preventive measure, buy healthy animals and remove infected goats from the herd. Spread can be reduced by avoiding stress on we animal.
The disease can only be diagnosed by growing the organism from we aborted foetus in the laboratory. The nervous or encephalatic form has a rapid course and causes death in 4 to 48 hours after symptoms appear. Symptoms include circling in one direction, high fever, lack of appetite, red tissues around we eyes (may be with blindness) and depression.
Affected animals may have a paralysis of one side of the face, represented by a drooping ear, drooping eyelid, and saliva running from limp lips. Up to 20% of the goats in a herd may be involved. When dying the animal will be down and may have fits. Confirming diagnosis can only be made in a diagnostic laboratory.
Listeriosis is caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and is commonly seen in cooler climates. The bacteria are very hardy and are found in soil, silage, manure, milk; urine, and drainage of we eye and nose of infected animals. Listeriosis is spread when goats swallow, inhale or infect weir eyes. The route by which it spreads can influence the symptoms, for example, infection through the eye or nose usually results in the nervous form. In developing countries it is most commonly seen when silage is put up too dry, not compacted tight enough to protect it from air.
There are no effective treatments for small ruminants, and they usually die after infection. Large doses of penicillin may help in some cases. When an outbreak occurs, one should isolate infected animals. If silage is being fed, discontinue.