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Sugarcane Varieties Suitable Under Abiotic Stress Conditions

Varsha Rani and R. S. Sengar   
Varsha Rani and R. S. Sengar   
cane
Sugarcane variety

SUGARCANES (Saccharum officinarum) family Gramineae is a unique crop with the ability to accumulate high levels of sugar and is a commercially viable source of biomass for bioelectricity and second-generation bioethanol.

Overexploitation of natural resources and human activities have created our ecosphere at risk of abiotic stresses that have an effect on growth and development, chemical composition, and sugar synthesis and its accumulation in sugarcane, and ultimately affect sugarcane/sugar productivity. Sugarcane contributes to 60% of the total sugar production within the world and the remaining 40 per cent is contributed by sugarbeet. Brazil stands first within the world with regard to area (4.8 million hectare) and production (324 million tons) followed by India, Cuba, Pakistan and China. 

Sugarcane second in the world both in area (4.2 million hectare) and production (314 million tons). Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are the necessary sugarcane growing states in India. Uttar Pradesh alone occupies 50 percent of the sugarcane area and contributes to 30 per cent of the production. However we have a tendency to all understand the Climate plays vital role in affect the growth rate of sugarcane crop. Sugarcane is grown in a wide range of temperature (18-40°C) and temperature requirement varies with growth stages. The annual rainfall and its distribution play a major role in influencing the irrigation requirement of sugarcane crop. Water insufficiency is that the biggest abiotic stress touching sugarcane productivity and the development of efficient and drought tolerant farming using water is mandatory for all major sugarcane producing countries. ICAR Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Karnal released some varieties that show tolerance beneath drought stress condition which facilitate in rising yield of the crops and increase the sugar productions. Some varieties are Co 98014 (Karan-1), Co 0118 (Karan-2), Co 0239 (Karan-6) etc., that are early maturity variety and Co 0233 (Kosi) is midlate maturity variety. 

For the management of abiotic stresses, physiological principles such as inducing hardiness, increasing the age of crop at the advent of stress, training roots to go vertically deeper in the soil, reducing the heat load and preventing further water loss from the soil, the use of moisture absorbers in the soil (which make it available during drought), and nutrient management are important in managing drought‐affected and rain‐fed canes. Increasing the age of the crop at the advent of water logging/flood (so that it suffers relatively lesser damage), planting rayungans or pre‐germinated setts, preventing water from entering root zone, improving waterlogged soils by incorporating organic bulk manures, and using certain nutrients impart tolerance to waterlogged conditions. Some Saccharum species and related genera possessing tolerance to abiotic stresses have been identified. Their use in breeding programs might result in development of high yield high sugar varieties tolerant to abiotic stresses. 

Sugarcane varieties suitable under drought conditions

In this review article we briefly discussed about the features of sugarcane varieties suitable under drought conditions. 

Co 98014 (Karan-1) 

It is an early maturity variety selected from the progeny of the cross Co 8316 X Co 8213. The cane yield of this variety was 76.29 t/ha and sucrose % in juice was 17.59. The fibres content is about 14% and the jaggery is of brown in colour. It is moderately resistant to the Red rot pathogen. The variety is tolerant to drought and water logging and suitable for co-generation 

Co 0118 (Karan-2) 

This is the early variety selected from the cross Co 8347 x Co 86011. This recorded the cane yield of 78.2 t/ha and sucrose content of 18.45 % at 10th month. It is moderately resistant to red rot and resistant to wilt and smut. The variety is non-lodging, non-flowering, tolerant to water logging and drought. The variety is free from splits, pith and bud cushion. The fibre % is about 12.78 %. This is suitable for summer planting as it has early vigour. Karan 2 is suitable for jaggery preparations also as it yields light yellow color jaggery. 

cane
Sugarcane crop

Co 0239 (Karan-6) 

It is an early maturity variety selected from the progeny of the cross Co 93016 GC. The Cane yield of this variety was 79.23 t/ha   and sucrose % in juice of Co 0239 was 18.58%. It had medium thick yellow green canes with cylindrical internodes, oval buds, lanceolate auricle, bud cushion and shallow bud groove. The variety is free from splits and pith. The fibre % is about 12.79 %.This variety release in 2010. 

Co 0237 (Karan-8) 

It is an early maturity variety selected from the progeny of the cross Co 93016 GC. The mean cane yield of Co 0237 was 71.33 t/ha. The mean sugar yield was 9.34 t/ha and mean sucrose% in juice of Co 0237 was 18.78 %. It is moderately resistant to the Red rot pathogen. The variety is also tolerant to water logging. This variety is free from spines, splits, pith, bud groove and bud cushion. Leaf tip drying is common during summer months. 

cane farm
Sugarcane

Co 0232 (Kamal) 

 It is an early maturing variety selected from cross CoLk 8102 x Co 87267 and recorded 67.82 t/ha of cane yield, 7.83 t/ha of CCS and 16.51 % of sucrose at 300 days. Co 0232 is resistant to red rot and tolerant to water logging conditions. The variety was tested under water logging condition at IISRRC, Motipur and found be better compared to the best standard BO 99. It recorded the 51.67 % and 54.25 improvement over BO 99 for cane yield and CCS t/ha respectively. The variety was notified for cultivation in North Central Zone in the year 2009. 

Co 0233 (Kosi) 

The variety is a selection from the cross CoLk 8102 x Co 775.  Co 0233 is a midlate maturing variety recorded high cane yield of 67.77 t/ha. It also recorded high CCS t/ha (8.25) and Sucrose % (17.54). This is a red rot resistant variety suitable for cultivation in North Central and North East zones. It is tolerant to water logging and performed well under water logging for three months and recorded 14.91 % higher cane yield and 12.14 % higher CCS t/ha than the standard BO 91. The variety was notified for cultivation in North Central and North East Zones in the year 2009. 

Sugarcane variety

CoPant 90223 (Pant 90223) 

It is midlate maturing variety developed from pollinated cross of cultivar BO 91 GC. Sucrose % is 19 % with cane yield of 80-85 t/ha . This variety registered higher sugar recovery than checks on an average by 0.38 to 0.45 units at 11-12 month age. CoPant 90223 recorded higher commercial cane sugar yield than checks, Co 1148, CoS 767 and CoLk 8102 on an average by 14.71, 10.84 and 10.84 percent, respectively over different trials in the North West Zone. It has wide adaptation in Tarai region of UP, Uttaranchal and Bihar. It is MR to red rot. It has loose leaf sheath hence easy detrashing. 

CoPk 05191 (Pratap Ganna-1) 

It is early maturity variety developed from parentage Co 1158 GC. The variety CoPk 05191 is having higher mean cane yield (81.12 t/ha) over 23 locations and ranked FIRST. This variety is having higher commercial cane sugar (CCS) yield 9.52 t/ha mean over the locations. The mean sucrose% in juice was 17.06%. The CoPk 05191 being stay green also showed tolerance to abiotic stresses viz., water logging, drought and biotic stresses like stem rot, smut and wilt. 

Authors

Varsha Rani and R.S. Sengar   

Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology 

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 

Email Id:raniv096@gmail.com 

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