Agriculture World

Monsoon2020: Tips for Enhancing Agricultural Productivity in Himachal Pradesh

Hitul Awasthi
Hitul Awasthi

Himachal Pradesh is divided into three zones outer Himalaya/Shiwaliks, inner Himalaya/ Mid Himalaya and greater Himalayas. There is a gradual rise in average elevation from south to north. The physiography of state is a complex mosaic of hills, valleys and snow-clad peaks. 

Agriculture plays an important role in the prosperity and economic development of Himachal Pradesh. Around 76% of people are dependent on agricultural and allied activities for their livelihood. 

Himachal Pradesh can be called an India-in-miniature as almost all climatic conditions prevailing in our country are found in the state. The average annual rainfall in the state is about 152 cm, thus making it suitable for cultivation of almost all major crops. 

Advisory for improving maize production

  1. In mid and low hills zone, land preparation and sowing should be completed from 15thMay to 15th June for timely sowing composite varieties like Girija and Palam Sankar Makka- 2, while for late sowing maize, it should be completed from 20th May to 30th June using varieties like Bajaura MakkaBajaura Popcorn 
  2. University tested hybrids can be procured from department of Agriculture
  3. Spacing of maize should be maintained at 60×20 cm, so that optimum plant population of 75,000-83,000 plants could be maintained
  4. Use FYM and NPK @ 120:60:40 for hybrids and NPK @ 95:45:30 for local varieties
  5. Use one third of N and full dose of P,K at sowing and, apply two split doses of N at first earthing up and other, one month thereafter
  6. Use pre-emergence herbicide atrazine @ 1.5-2.0 Kg a.i./ha for sole crops while alachlor @ 1.5 Kg/ha for mixed cropping systems
  7. For control of cutworms and white grubs, chlorpyrifos @ 2.0 litre/ha mixed in 60-70 kg sandy soil may be used as soil amendment before sowing, or, cypermethrin 10EC @1ml/litre as foliar application

 

Advisory for improving Paddy production

  1. Complete transplanting of rice using 25-30 days old seedlings by end of June. 
  2. In case of basmati rice high yielding and disease resistance varieties like Kasturi and HPR 2612 could be used. For late sowing conditions also use HPR 2612.
  3. Varieties like BhriguDhan, Varun Dhan and Naggar Dhan could be used in Kullu valley and other colder areas 
  4. Fertilizer application in transplanted rice should be NPK @ 90:40:40 with 50% of N and entire dose of P, K applied at time of transplanting and remaining N in two equal doses at 3 and 6 weeks after transplanting
  5. For Zn deficiency symptoms, apply 60 Kg of zinc sulphate heptahydrate (21%) or 40 kg zinc sulphatmonohydrate (33%) per hectare at puddling 
  6. Use post-emergence herbicide Bispyribacsodium @ 250ml/ha at 20-25 days after transplanting 
  7. In direct seeded rice, high yielding varieties like HPR 1156 (SukaraDhan), HPR 2656 and HPR2795 could be sown by end of May or first week of june @ 60Kg seed/ha 
  8. Under irrigated conditions apply first irrigation at 25 days after sowing
  9. For management of stem borer, apply carbofuran granules (Furadan3G) @ 33 Kg/ha in standing water after 10 days of transplanting 

Advisory for improving Pulses production

  1. Blackgramsowing could be started in June end and completed in first forthnight of July using HYV like UG 218, Him Mash 1 and PB 114 in low and mid-hills and Palampur 93 in high hills using basal dose of NPK @ 20:40:20 at the time of sowing 
  2. Seed biofortification with Rhizobium and PSB culture before sowing
  3. Apply pre-emergence herbicide Pendimethalin @ 1.5 Kg/ha
  4. Apply Cypermethrin 10EC @ 1ml/l for management of blister beetle at flowering stage
  5. For management of anthracanose, seed treatment with bavistin@ 2g/kg seed can be sone or apply foliar spray of bavistin @ 1g/l water 

 Advisory for improving Tomato Production

  1. For kharif, nursery raising may be started in the month of May and transplanting should be completed by mid-May
  2. For management of early blight, buckeye-rot and fruit-rot diseases apply copper oxychloride @ 3g/L, ridomilMZ @ 2.5g/L, and mancozeb 45 @ 2.5 g or Kavach @ 2g/L, respectively  
  3. Apply profenos@1ml/L or chlorpyrifos @2ml or cypermethrin 10EC @ 1ml/L of water for control of fruit borer 
  4. In areas where blossom end rot incidence in evident, apply calcium chloride @ 5g/L of water as foliar application

Advisory for increasing Capsicum production 

  1. For management of powdery mildew and fruit rot disease use hexaconazole or cantaf@ 0.5 ml/L and mancozeb 45 or ridimilMZ @ 2.5g/L 
  2. For management of fruit borer apply lambda cyhalothrin @ 0.8 ml/L or acephate@ 1g/L or flubendamide @ 0.2 g/L  
  3. Use imidacloprid @ 0.5 ml/L for sucking pests

 Advisory for increasing Cucurbits production

  1. Install Palam Fruit Fly traps @ 25traps/ha and use malathion 30ml + gur150 g/15 L of water at 15 days interval, for managing fruit flies 
  2. Use bavistin1g + mancozeb 452 g/L of water for management of fungal diseases 

 Advisory of increasing production of Cole crops

  1. Transplantation can be started in June using NPK @ 125:75:70 at the time of sowing, with N in 3 split doses (30, 60, 90 DAT)
  2. Add Borax for management of browning in cauliflower
  3. For cutworms management, use cypermethrin 10EC @ 1ml/L of water

 Advisory for increasing Brinjal Production

  1. Apply cypermethrin @ 1ml/L at flowering stage for management of brinjal fruit and shoot borer
  2. Apply COC @ 3g/L or ridomil@ 2.5 g/L, for management of Phomopsis blight 

 Advisory for increasing French bean production

  1. For weed management use pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin @ 1.5 kg/ha
  2. Apply bavistin@ 1g/L fpr management of anthracanose and angular leaf spot disease 

 Conclusion 

Kharif season is a very important season for the farmers. But, due to lock down there is a halt in extension activities and farmer movements, due to which theagriculture sector is facing various hardships. The above mentioned advisories are from the ICAR, and aims at improving production and livelihood conditions of the farmers. 

(Source: ICAR) 

 

 

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