Agripedia

All About Cultivation and Production of Mango in India

Aayush Chowdhury
Aayush Chowdhury
Mango Cultivation

Introduction:-

Mango (Mangifera Indica) is the most ancient among all the tropical fruits and is believed to be originated in the Indo – Burma region of Eastern Asia. India is the major mango producing country in the world with an annual production of 20.44 million tons from an area of one million hectares. Mango is eventually a tropical plant but endures wide range of temperature. It grows well under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. 

Climate and Temperature:-

The mango flowers and fruits during winter, which is characterized by absence of rainfall. Rainy weather during flowering causes extreme damage to mango as it adversely affects flowering and fruit set and increases incidence of pests and bacterial or viral diseases. It grows where temperature drops as low as 20C. And as high as 470C. However, it thrives best at temperature around 280C. It grows well both in low (24 cm) and high (245 cm) rainfall areas. However with annual rainfall around 75-80 cm, it can grow without irrigation. 

Fertilizers:-

A young orchard be supplied with 10 kg FYM + 100 Kg Nitrogen (N) + 50 g Phosphorus (P2O5) + 100 g Potassium (K2O) per tree in the first year and it should be increased with age. The 12 year old tree should get FYM + 1 Kg Nitrogen + 500 g P2O5 + 1000 g K2O. If irrigation is available, additional dose of 500 g Nitrogen be given in the month of February and March.

Irrigation:- 

Newly planted grafts be irrigated at 3-4 days interval for 6 months, thereafter interval should be 8 – 10 days depending upon climate Irrigation interval of 10-15 days is adequate for 1-5 year old plants. For bearing trees, irrigation should not be given prior to flowering for 2-3 months as it promotes vegetative growth and reduces the crop. When the fruits have developed to the size of a marble, irrigation can be started and continued at weekly or fortnightly intervals. This helps to reduce fruit loss by dropping, promotes rapid fruit development, early maturity and improves quality. However, mango is mostly grown as rain crop. 

Mango Tree

Harvesting:-

Mango fruits mature in 3-4 months from flowering, Fruit color changes from dark green to light green on maturity. Harvesting must be started during early morning hours. Individual fruits are clipped with 1.5-2.5 cm stalk using mango harvester. Harvested fruits are kept on bags under shade. Under developed, bruised and infected fruits are sorted out and healthy fruits are graded into 2 – 3 grades depending upon color, shape and size and packed in wooden or corrugated boxes. 

Production in India:-

Mango is commercially cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Kerala, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab and Haryana, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Mango cultivated over an area of 2309 thousand hectares with an annual production of 12750 thousand metric tones. In Punjab, mango is being cultivated in whole of the sub-mountain belt comprising Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur Roop Nagar, Fatehgarh Sahib, Mohali and Patiala districts.  

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