1. Home
  2. Agripedia

Bulb Onion- Sowing till harvesting

The onion is also known as the ‘Bulb Onion’ or a Common Onion is a vegetable most widely cultivated species of the genius ‘allium cepa’. The onion is mostly used in the summer

KJ Staff

The onion is also known as the ‘Bulb Onion’ or a Common Onion is a vegetable most widely cultivated species of the genius ‘allium cepa’. The onion is mostly used in the summer.


           Onion can be grown under the wide range of climatic conditions, but it grows best under mild climate without extreme heat or cold or excessive rainfall. Onion is temperate crop but can be grown under a wide range of climate condition such as temperate, tropical and subtropical climate. However, onion plant is hardy and in the young stage can withstand freezing temperature also. In India short day onion is grown in the plains and require 10-12 hours length day. The long day onion grown in hills requires 13-14 hours a day. The optimum temperature for vegetative phase and bulb development is 13-24 degree and 16-25 degree, respectively. It requires about 70% relative humidity for good growth. It can grow well in a place where the average annual rainfall is 650-750mm with good distribution during the monsoon period. The area with low (<650mm) or heavy rainfall (>750mm ) are not particularly suitable for the rainfed crop.

The soil for the onion cultivation should be rich in organic matter, free from disease, weeds and should be well drained. Onion can be grown in all type of soil such as sandy loam, clay loam, silt loam and heavy soil. Onion crop can be grown successfully on the heavy soil with the application of much organic manure prior to planting and thus the preparation of the field for the onion cultivation should be very good. The optimum PH range regardless of soil type is 6.0-7.5 but the onion can be also grown in mild alkaline soils.




The bulb is medium-large deep dark red with an average yield potential of 120q/acre. It is suitable for sowing in Kharif season.

Sowing time:  

The best sowing time for the Kharif onion nursery is mid June, whereas to produce bulb sets it is mid march.

Seed Rate: The seed quantity required to the seedling for one-hectare main field is about 5-7kg purchased from some reliable source. For direct sowing, the seed required in the main field is about 1.6-2.0 kg of certified seed.

Nursery Raising :




Nursery sowing













North India










Madhya Pradesh










Andhra Pradesh

Early winter




Nursery beds should be raised 20cm above the ground level and 1 to 1.5-meter wide area of the nursery beds depending upon the number of seedlings required. Keep nursery beds and field area ration of 1:20. The field should be ploughed 5-6 times to break clods and well demolished to hold water. The distance should be at least 30cm. So, the water movement is uniform and the drainage of excess water is possible. The nursery beds should be protected from the high temperature by covering it during the daytime. A shade structure of straw or any other crop material should be placed at the 1.5m height over the nursery beds of a 1.5cm width preferably in a North-South direction. Remove this structure after one month when the seedling had established.

Bulb set technique:  Small and medium-sized bulb about 10-12 quintal are dibbling keeping 30cm distance between lines and 15cm between bulbs. Irrigation can be done within one or two days after dibbling.

Manures & Fertilizer: Add 20 tons of farmyard manure with 40kg of N (90kg of Urea), 20kg of P2O5 (125kg of single superphosphate) and 20kg of K2O (35kg of muriate of potash) per acre. Apply whole farmyard manure, P2O5 and K2O and 1/2N before transplanting and remaining dose of nitrogen as top-dressing after 4 weeks of transplanting.

Transplanting: When the seedling is 6-8 weeks old and 15cm high, they should be removed from the nursery beds and transplanted in the main field at a distance of 15-20cm between and 7-10cm between plants or seedling. Irrigate the field soon after transplanting. The transplanting should be done either in early hours or late in the evening to avoid the drying of the seedling.

Weed Control: Weed control is same as in rabi onion.

Harvesting: Your success in harvesting onion will depend on proper planting and care throughout the growing season. The crop is ready for harvesting in December. There is no serious problem of pest or disease in this crop. If the weather is wet, dry them under cover instead, for instance in a well-ventilated greenhouse or tunnel. Always handle onions carefully to prevent bruising.

International No Diet Day 2024 Quiz Take a quiz

Related Articles

Share your comments
FactCheck in Agriculture Project

Subscribe to our Newsletter. You choose the topics of your interest and we'll send you handpicked news and latest updates based on your choice.

Subscribe Newsletters