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Enhanced Mango Production

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is considered to be the king of fruit. India is the second largest producer of fruit and vegetables in the world. Total fruit crops production of the India is 92918 thousand tons from total an area 6373 thousand hectare. In India, Mango is grown in about 2212 ‘000’ hectare area with an annual production of 19506 ‘000’ tons. (Area and Production of Horticulture Crops - All India 2017)

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Mangoes in the Basket
Mangoes in the Basket

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is considered to be the king of fruit. India is the second largest producer of fruit and vegetables in the world. Total fruit crops production of India is 92918 thousand tons from total an area 6373 thousand hectares. In India, Mango is grown in about 2212 ‘000’ hectare area with an annual production of 19506 ‘000’ tons. (Area and Production of Horticulture Crops - All India 2017)  

Grafted Mango begins to bear fruit from the fourth to the fifth year of planting. The time of flowering in different regions is greatly influenced by local weather conditions. In North India, Mango is a flower in late January or the beginning of February. In South Indian region flowering of Mango takes place as early as November to December.

Flowering in Mango continues in two or three distinct flushes for a period of 6 to 8 weeks on different branches of trees and takes about 5 months for the fruit to mature and ripen after flowering. Some varieties of Mango are self-incompatible in nature that’s why fails in fruit settings which reflects in flower drop. The farmers are advised to grow 10 percent plants of other Mango varieties in the orchard.   

Fruit drop is a serious problem in Mango and causes great loss to Mango growers. A tree producing several thousand panicles yields only a few hundred fruits. Most of the flowers fall down after full bloom or at a later stage of development. Only 0.01 to 0.1 percent of flowers develop into mature fruit. Fruit drop has been divided into three distinct phases e.g. pinhead drop, post-setting drop, and June drop.  

Probably, the nutritional factor has been considered responsible for the fruit drop in Mango. The nutritional requirement of Mango after 5 years varies with the region, soil type, and age. A dose of 50 Kg. well-decomposed organic manure, 1630 g. Urea, 1086 g. Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and 833 g. Murata of potash (MOP) should be applied during the monsoon season.  Fertilizers are applied in basins by the ring or at drip at a depth of 15-20 cm. The area around the active root zone is 30 cm from the trunk at a depth of 30 cm. The split dose of Urea @ 1630 g. the per plant should be applied in September-October. (Directorate of Extension Education, MPKV, Rahuri- Krushidarshani, 2018)  

Spraying of zinc sulfate 0.3 percent (3 g. /liter of water) during January, February, March, and April are recommended at monthly interval to correct zinc deficiency. Spraying of Borax 0.5 percent (5 g./ liter of water) after fruit set twice at monthly intervals and 0.5 percent (5 g./ liter of water) manganese sulfate after blooming correct manganese and boron deficiencies respectively. (Handbook of Horticulture).

The flower, as well as the fruit drop, is primarily due to the formation of an abscission layer at the point of attachment of fruit with the twig. Several factors have been considered responsible for the formation of the abscission layer. It has been observed that Nitrogen retards and reduces abscission. Low concentrations have also been found to lead leaf, flower, and bud and fruit abscission. Fruit drop has been attributed to many other causes e.g. abortion of embryo, degeneration of ovules, poor soil, inadequate irrigation water, attack of insect-pest, diseases, depletion of nutrients, hormonal imbalance, etc. Spraying of 50 ppm (50 mg. / liter of water) gibberellic acid, immediately at flowering is recommended to minimize flower and fruit drop.     

Fruit drop may be controlled to some extent by the spray of 1 percent (10 g. /liter water) Potassium nitrate with 20 ppm (20 mg. /liter of water) NAA at 15 days interval during flowering. Spraying of 2 percents (20 g. / liter of water) Urea is recommended at full bloom stage correct nutritional deficiency. (Dr. Sanjay Patil (FRC, Himayatbagh, Aurangabad, Agroone article)    

Inadequate water supplies during fruit development have been considered responsible for fruit drop. The farmers are advised to irrigate plants as fruit becomes of ‘Pea’ size at 10 days interval. Flowering in Mango continues in two or three distinct flushes for a period of 6 to 8 weeks with ber or lime size fruit development of on different branches of trees. Spraying of 2 percents (20 g. / liter of water) 12:61:00 water soluble fertilizer is recomonded to avoid fruit drop. (Dr. Sanjay Patil (FRC,  Himayatbagh, Aurangabad, Agroone article).  

Plant protection   

Plant protection factor has been considered responsible for Mango flower and fruit drop. The plant is subject to disease and insect-pest attack at all stages of its development viz. Powdery mildew (Microsphaera mangiferae), Leaf blight (Macrophoma mangiferae) , and Hoppers (Amritodus atkinsoni sp. and idioscopus sp.). The farmers are advised to spray twice, Carbendazim 12 % + Mencozeb 63 percent W.P. (2 g. / liter of water) at 10 days intervals to control Mango leaf blight. (Directorate of Extension Education, MPKV, Rahuri- Krushidarshani, 2018)  

The farmers are advised to adopt plant protection measures, are given bellow  

Sr. No. 

 Spaying time  

Insect-pest/ Diseases  

Management (Spray) 

Fruit bud differentiation (first spray)  

Blight 

Carbendezim 12 % + Mencozeb 63 percents W.P. (2 g. / liter of water)  

2 weeks after first spray (second spray) 

Hoppers + Powdery mildew 

Imidacloprid 17.8 S.L. 3 ml. + Sulphur 80 WP 25 g. /10 lit. of water  

2 weeks after second spray (third spray) 

Powdery mildew 

Sulphur 80 WP 25 g. /10 lit. of water 

25 days after third spray (forth spray) 

Powdery mildew 

Dinocap 48 % E.C. 5 ml./ 10 liter of water  

2 weeks after forth spray (fifth spray) 

Hoppers + Powdery mildew 

Penconazole 10 % E.C. 5 ml./ 10 liter of water 

 

Directorate of Extension Education, MPKV, Rahuri- Krushidarshani, 2018  

Farmers-Scientist interaction, North Gujarat, Sabarkantha region, KVK, SDAU, Gujarat. 

Farmers-Scientist interraection, North Gujarat, Sabarkantha region, KVK, SDAU, Gujarat.  

North Gujarat, Sabarkantha region, Horticulture farm of KVK, SDAU, Gujarat.

Article By –

Dr. Sable P.  A., Assistant Professor (Horticulture), Sardar krushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, S. K. Nagar, Gujarat.
Dr. A.S. Sheikh, Senior Scientist, Krishi Vigyan Kendra SADU, Khedbrahma.
Sushma Sonpure, Sr. Ph.D. Scholar (Agronomy), Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, MS. 

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