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How to make profit by protected cultivation of Rose

Dr. Sangeeta Soi
Dr. Sangeeta Soi

Rose cultivation should be focused on the selection of right variety of rose. Rose flower has a market both at national and international level as it is being used for various purposes like in marriages, parties, funerals or any function in the form of bouquets or cut flowers. They are also used for making rose water, gulkand and rose oil. Major rose cultivating states are West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Karnataka. 

Rose plants divided by classification of flowers;  

Hybrid T 

  • Red colour: first red, Aone, Happiness, Mr. Lincoln, Raktgandha, black lady, mantejumaand grand galla. 

  • Yellow colourAll  Sameergold, gold medal, Golden star, golden time, yellow success, and pusa soniya. 

  • Orange color: Super star, summer holiday, and president.

Dual Color: Envil spark, Madhos, Double delight, SupriyaAbhisarika, Kiss of fire and tata centenary. 


  • White Color: Ice berg, summer snow, magritmaril,Chitchor, Chandrama. 

  • Pink Color: PremeSadabahar, King Arther, bridal.

  • Yellow Color: Artherbel, doctor fousealigold, sea pearl, golden time. 

  • Orange Color: Daris NarmansuryakiranJorenaand Jebra 

  • Dual Clor: Karishma, mask Red, Paint Box Nav Sadabahar, Red Gold and Reyar


Anjani, Rashmi, Hartaki, Priti and Swati. 

Planting season:  

The ideal planting season for rose cultivation in green house is Oct to Dec month. 

Soil and Climate 

Well- drained sandy loam with pH of 6-7 is suitable. Bright sunshine for minimum of 6 hours is essential for the cultivation of roses. Day temperature of 26°C and night temperature of 15°C are ideal. 

Propagation and planting 

Cuttings with 2-3 buds are dipped in IBA or IAA @500 PPM. Pits of 45cm x 45 cm x 45 cm are dug at 2.0 x 1.0 m spacing and 10 kg FYM is added to each pit before planting. 


Irrigation is done once in 2 days until plants establish and once a week thereafter. Avoid salt water for irrigation purpose. 


After pruning in October and again in July the plants are manured with FYM 10 kg and 6:12:12g of NPK per plant. 


Foliar application of 0.2% micronutrients mixture containing 20g MnSO4 + 15 g  MgSO4 +5 g B ( 2g of the mixture is dissolved in one litre of water) can produce bright colored flowers. 

What to do after cultivation?


The best time of pruning is the period when the activity of rose plant is least and the plant is dormant to near dormant stage. Pruning time will depend on climate conditions of the particular region. The vigorous past season shoots are cut back to half the length. All the weak, diseased, criss-crossing and unproductive shoots are removed. The cut ends should be protected with Bordeaux or Fytolan paste + Carbaryl 50 WP. 

Harvesting for rose cultivation in green house: 

Red and pink varieties can be harvested when first two petals of the flower start to unfold and calyx is reflexed before the horizontal line. Yellow type rose should be harvested slightly earlier and white rose type slightly later than red and pink varieties. 

After cutting stem should be dipped in 200-500 ppm aluminium sulphate or citric acid and placed in cold storage @ 10°C till grading. Plant stem ends should be recut bunched in 20’s and placed in preservative solution of sucrose upto 2 percent. 

Plant protection 


Rose chaffer beetle White grub: Red scale, Mealy bug, Flower caterpillar, Helicoverpa armigera, Bud worm, thrips aphids ad leaf hoppers 

Disease:  black spot disease, powdery mildew, Botrytis blight, crown gall and Die-black 

Crop duration 

The plants will start flowering in the first year and will give economic yield from the second year onwards. 

Season of flowering and harvesting 

Flowering will commence from 45 days after pruning. Fully opened flowers are picked early in the morning. 


The yield depends on the green house practices and variety. In rose flower cultivation an average yield of 225-350 stems/sq m can be obtained. In order to increase the flower yield one has to spray BAP 50-100 ppm before flowering. Another method of increasing rose flowering is by burning of saw dust during winter months in the morning time (6-10 am). This will greatly increase flower yield as well as quality.  About 10 lakh flowers/ha/year can be obtained.  

Greenhouse cost and profits 

Green house are constructed for the controlled growth of the plant under restricted conditions. Sometimes the use of protected cultivation is restricted due to its expensive cost and technology. However subsidy is available for the construction of greenhouse but in order to reduce the cost one can go for low cost green houses also using bamboo wood etc. 

Here we will discuss the model for production of rose cut flowers for export market, domestic market as well as the cost of green house construction. 

Following has to be arranged for successful green house cultivation,


1. Land or an important site especially nearby local market. 

2. Setting up or constructing the greenhouse including material 

3. Planting material 

4. Irrigation material 

5. Fertilization material 

6. Grading and packing area 

7. Refrigerated bank. 

8. Office equipment  

9. Import of technology 

10. Labour charges 

11. Hiring technical manpower 

12. Fertilizers, preservatives and pesticides 

 The greenhouse cultivation involves two types of cost components: 

  1. Fixed cost components: Permanent items costs for example land cost, green house construction material etc.

  2. Recurring cost components: Plantation costs, cultivation, maintenance/ labour, packing costs.

There are different subsidies, loans and schemes are available from bank for the establishment of green house, which can be availed for cultivation for any crops. 

Below mentioned is the chart for one hectare green house to produce Rose cut flower. 

Initial investments and information 

  1. 25% of the total cost of project has to be invested by the entrepreneur.

  2. Principal and investments has to repayable in 7 years with a moratorium for the first year for interest and for two years on principal amount.

 Land and development costs                   4.0 lakh 

Green house costs                                 13  lakh 

Cold storage cost                                   10  lakh 

Grading and packing room cost                   5  lakh 

Office area cost                                      2.5 lakh 

Refrigerated van cost                               1.0 lakh 

Generator set cost                                   2.0 lakh 

Fax, telephone, computer cost                   1   lakh 

Furniture cost                                         0.5 lakh 

Power supply installations cost                   2  lakh 

Water supply system, drip irrigation 

and misting liners cost                              6.0  lakhs 

Planting material and planting costs            30.0.lakh 

Total fixed cost of greenhouse                   77  lakh 

 Types of greenhouses and their cost involved 

  • Low cost green house without fan and pad  - Rs. 300-500/ Sq mt

  • Medium-tech greenhouses with fan pad system and without automation  - Rs. 800-1100/Sq mt

  • Hi tech green houses with fully automatic system Rs - 2000-  3500/Sqmt

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