1. Animal Husbandry

Gir Cow Farming: Know the Advantages, Housing Requirements, Feeding and Economics

Chintu Das
Chintu Das
Gir Cow

One of the well-known varieties among the humped category of cattle breed in India is "Gir Cow". This breed is native to India and belongs to Kathiawar region located in Gujarat. Gir breed of cow is reared in many other states in the country and is known by many other names such as Sorthi, Surti, Bhodali, Desan among others. Known for its adaptability and milk production, this cow breed is reared by the tribes of the Gujarat state. This breed is pure and is one of the oldest found in India.

This breed is also reared in many other countries all over the world such as the United States of America, Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico. This international presence is offered to this breed by Brazil. Brazil supplies upgraded cattle embryos and semen of Indian origin cattle to other countries in the world. Gir breed of cow is best known for its dairy production capacity all over the world.

Gir Cow farming advantages

- Add more value as the breed is considered as the best dairy breed found in the country.

- Produces high quality milk along with higher quantity when compared to other breeds. Also A-2 beta casein protein is present in the milk.

- Breed is highly adaptable and can adjust to many habitat conditions.

- Farming Gir cows does not require a big maintenance structure.

- The Gir cows have a low rate of mortality and average span of life for the same is around 12 to 15 years.

- These cows have a higher fertility rate and produce an average of 10 calves in its lifespan.

- Is resistant to many diseases.  

- Milk value is high and cows are highly adaptable to mechanical milking.

- For rearing this breed, mostly natural mating technique is preferred and not artificial insemination.

Housing for gir

Generally concrete is used for building the houses for this breed. The house should be properly oxygenated along with the roof height should be maintained at around 18 feet at the middle and 8 feet at the sides. The space between the cattle's should be at-least 5 sq. meter. The house is to be maintained dry and a proper drainage should be available for the removal of unwanted materials from the house. Cleaning should be done regularly to avoid incubation of mosquitoes and spreading of parasites as well as viruses.

Feed gir cow

Feeding itself covers upto 50 percent of the total cost of farming. Apart from open field grazing that is necessary for the reduction in the cost associated to feed, Gir cows are to be fed with Jowar, Bajra straw, dry fodder, cotton seed cake, soya husk, jaggery etc. Also vegetables like carrot, drumstick and beet-root can be fed to the cows. Over-feeding has to be avoided and proper routine has to be followed while feeding. The feed has to be stored at a dry place to avoid contamination and feed has to provided in the form of medium ground powder. Feeding has to be done in accordance with the age and condition of the cows. Also along with feed, a decent amount of water has to be provided as-well.

Yield

This breed of cow produces an average of 1590 kilo of milk for each lactation. An average of 1600 kilo of milk per lactation is produced during the first calving process by these cows. It increases to around 1800 kilo of milk for mature cows for each lactation. The selling price for a liter of milk stands between rupees 50 to 70 and is comparatively higher when compared to other breeds. The milk is healthier and enjoys a higher market demand due to the presence of casein and whey protein in it. Also the fat quantity ranges between 4.7 to 5 percent.

Economics: 

The cost include:

Type of Facility

Cost

Cost of the cow shed (4 cows), 40 sq.ft per cow at ₹ 250 per sq.ft

₹ 40,000

Cost of the calf shed (4 cows), 20 sq.ft per cow at ₹ 250 per sq.ft

₹ 20,000

Production of 10 Liters milk at ₹ 30,000 (4 cows)

₹ 1,20,000

Transportation per cow at ₹ 1,000 (4 cows)

₹ 4,000

Chaff Cutter (Hand operated)

₹ 10,000

Appliances (4 cows)

₹ 4,000

Farm Electrification

₹ 12,000

Recurring Capital (Total)

2,10,000

Cost of feed (1 month)

₹ 5,000

Animal Insurance (5% of the animal cost)

₹ 6,000

Fodder Cultivation (1 Acre Land)

₹ 10,000

Vaccine, Electricity and extra costs

₹ 9,000

Expenditure (Total)

₹ 30,000

Farm Cost (Total)

₹ 2,40,000

Above calculation is based on:

Gir cow cost is ₹ 30,000 for each cow. Which is more in reality and ranges between ₹ 60,000 to 2,00,000.

Yield of milk: 10 L/ Day (Average)

Considered cow required space is 40 sq.ft

Considered calf required space is 20 sq.ft

Cost of construction per sq.ft of area is ₹ 250

Equipment cost for each animal is ₹ 1,000

Cost of concrete feed is ₹ 16 per kilo

Cost of dry fodder is ₹ 1 per kilo

Total animal reared is 4 in number

Profit from Gir cow

Average milk produced per cow for each day is 10 L (4 cows equals 40 L)

Selling Price for each L of milk is ₹ 27

Price of 40 L of milk per day is ₹ 1,080

Total income for 1 month is ₹ 32,400

Annual Income is ₹ 3,88,800

Annual Net profit equals to ₹ 1,48,800

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