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Goat Farming: Means for Getting Maximum Profit with Low Investment

Goat Farming Maximum Profit with Low Investment

In present scenario of day-by-day increasing population and limited agricultural produce due to shrinking agricultural area may generate challenges to meet growing demand of food and to ensure nutritional security. The only solution seems to be possible through integrated farming as animal husbandry undertakings are very important for the rural livelihood and overall economic development of the country. 

Our country possesses vast livestock biodiversity owing to varied geo-climatic conditions. The meat produced from the various livestock species can be specifically beneficial for fulfilling the protein requirements of the community as it is very hard to meet protein requirements with only plantorigin food.Since few decades, goat farming has been seen as an important opportunity for the supply of animal meat as it needs low initial investment and maximum profit can be made within a short span of time. Goat meat (chevon) is one of the choicest meats and it has huge domestic and global demand. Besides meat, goat milk always remains in demand especially for children, old people and dengue patients.

Earlier goat farming was mostly limited to only poor or marginal farming community but now a days many livestock farmers are taking interest and adopting goat farming due to scope of profitability. However, the productivity of goats under the prevailing traditional production system is very lowdue to lack of awareness about the breeding, feeding, housing, management and scientific farming systems. Therefore, rearing of goats under intensive and semi-intensive system using improved technologies for commercial production has become imperative not only for realizing their full potential but also to meet the increasing demand of chevon in the domestic as well as global markets. Various states of  North India viz. Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh etc. possess several goat breeds with good milk and meat production potential. The only need is to encourage the farmers to perform goat farming in a precise and planned way so that they can get maximum benefits.  

Potentials in goat farming 

  • Domestic as well as global demand of the goat products

  • Availability of good indigenous milch, meat and prolific breeds 

  • Consume wide variety of feed, fodders, weeds, herbs and shrubs

  • Convert low quality food stuff into nutritious meat

  • Taste, quality and quantity of meat and milk

  • Fetches high price for meat and milk due to health benefits

  • Short generation interval as compare to large animals 

  • Quick return from produce 

  • Additional income from skin, fiber, hair and manure 

  • Can be raised with very little veterinary care

  • Requires less labour/ skilled labour

  • No religious taboo associated with goat farming

  • Gives employment to the rural small scale and marginal farmers

Why should we boost goat farming?           

  • Vast goat genetic resources in our country

  • Easy handling due to small body size

  • Hardy animals, needs very low care and management 

  • Higher resistance against common diseases

  • Excellent prolificacy

  • High medicinal value of milk

  • Low inputs (feed cost, shelter, labour)

  • Preference to our indigenous goat genetic resources

  • Nutritional security

  • High return in low investment as compare to other livestock farming

Who can start goat rearing? 

  • Anyone who have interest to raise the goats

  • Unemployed / Landless/Marginal farmer/farm women/rural youth 

  • Person who wants to earn part time income along with other job

  • People with good grazing lands and pasture areas

  • Someone willing to invest in commercial goat farming

  • Individual who wants to flourish their business in value added milk and meat products

  • Excellent scope in the breeding of animals    

Someone, who wishes to start goat related entrepreneurship, must have basic information and are suggested to start with the smaller units; which should be gradually expanded. Although some common tasks such as feeding, breeding, milking, and caring animals etc. that have to be performed in routine but the adoption of scientific and cost effective ways to optimize routine farm operations is the real secret behind the successful goat farming. Some of the necessary and important considerations for starting a goat farming business are: 

Selection and Breeding: the best goat breed must be selected as per the climatic conditions of the region where goat farming is to be performed sothat they can easily adapt, and be easily available in the sufficient number. Selection and breeding of quality animals within the breed considering production, reproduction, health and fitness traits is very important aspect in the goat farming as these are the main assets going to give business a good forward thrust. Our country is very rich in goat genetic resources by having about 34 goat breeds. We have excellent breeds like JamunapariBeetal, Barberi, SirohiJhakhrana,Surti, Marwari, Jalawadi etc. in the north region of the country. These breeds possess good potential for milk and meat production which requires continual genetic improvement through scientific breeding practices. 

Goat Farming

for profit. These equipments will be very helpful for proper care and maintenance of goats. Common equipments for goats includes feeders, waterer, barn cleaning equipment, pasture clipping equipment, hay chopper, grooming equipment, ear tag applicator, castrator, restraining equipments etc. Iron based feeder has been specially prepared from Central Institute of Research on Goats for efficient utilization of fodder with very low wastage and to provide equal opportunity to every animal.  

Feeding: feed management is a very important parameter for success of any enterprise because more than 60 percent input goes towards feeding only. Goat feed management is very essential for commercial goat farming business. Goats prefer to eat plants, shrubs, grasses,weeds and herbs. Besides, goat also need proper ratio of energy and protein, vitamins, fiber and water for proper growth, reproduction, production, which are crucial for making better profits from this business. Goat fodder plan is very important aspect of the goat farming, a proper fodder plan and cost management of fodder is required to make good profit in goat farming business. 

Custom diet must be given to the various specific categories (grower, weaning, puberty, different stages of pregnancy, few days before & after kidding, lactating etc.) of the animals. In addition, appropriate amount of dry fodder and concentrate mixture is very important to fulfil the dietary requirement of goats. In possible, allow goats for grazing in surplus grazing area with greenery facilitates proper movement of the animals, helps in their digestion and enhance metabolism and improves over all fitness. 

Reproductive management: In-time detection of heat is important in goats which are exclusively stallfed, since the breeding bucks at loose housing and natural grazing may cover the goats through natural mating. A disadvantage of keeping a male at loose housing with the females is that the mating becomes very hard to record and subsequent management for pregnancy becomes delayed till detection of pregnancy in goats. Systemically planned mating of animals is essential for genetic improvement of the animals, which can be easily managed by pan mating practices or by assigning a specific buck to a herd.

Pregnancy diagnosis still is a very important practice to plan pregnancy, kidding and post kidding care and management.The animals at their last two weeks of pregnancy must be shifted to already sanitized kidding pen. For every 20-30 breedable female goats, one sound breeding buck is sufficient. The breeding buck needs to be replaced every 2-3 years to minimize inbreeding.

Vaccination: There is a saying that “Prevention is better than cure” which is really very important in any enterprise in order to make farm animals safe. Get animals vaccinated timely againstvarious prevalent diseases like PPR (Peste des petits ruminants), goat pox, foot and mouth disease and bacterial diseases like anthrax, brucellosis etc. are essential to prevent animals from such diseases. Always take good care of animals in harsh climatic conditions to prevent unwanted health hazard and diseases. 

Marketing 

Marketing is the most important part for making maximum profits from goat farming business. All the farming efforts will be wasted, if one can’t properly use effective marketing strategies. So farmers must ensureabout the market for products before starting goat farming business. Selling of products in organized local/nearest market is best in order to maintain the quality of produce. Raising goats will be very profitable, if the farm is located near an urban area. Some nearby restaurants/ health care centers can be approached as potential markets. Selling the goats directly to the customer will invite better profits by avoiding agents.

Now-a-days whatsapp groups, mobile marketing Apps, social media platforms etc. are playing a very important role in buying and selling products. One must however keep in mind that gaining substantial profits from any enterprise is not possible just after a few days of beginning. It takes time as number of associated factors such as farming system, location, breeds, feeding cost etc.to be standardized. With appropriate plan of work for present and future as well as with proper management, anyone can make goat farming business beneficial and profitable. 

Challenges  

  • Availability of quality germplasm

  • Knowledge gap for appropriate utilization of  best available animals

  • Lack of quality feeds available to the animals

  • Insufficientawareness and adaption ofsuitable technologies 

  • Limited availability of vaccines and veterinary care facilities

  • Lack of organized marketing facility

  • Insufficient preservation, value addition and processingfacilities

  • Overall less awareness towards successful goat rearing among livestock owners

Conclusion:  

To ensure nutritional security of the increasing population in the country, it becomes necessary to look beyond crops and cattle/ buffalo based dairy. The goats present an answer to the problem by producing both milk and meat of exceptional quality, nutritive value and flavours. Besides not having any religious taboo associated with them, the goat products have a ubiquitous demand throughout the country. In the present scenario of global warming, goats have shown an excellent ability to adapt easily and produce well, among the various livestock species. 

Requirement of minimum investment for start-up of goat rearing, due to requirement of less space, labour, equipment and part-time involvement leads it to stand as extremely beneficial for all categories of farmers. Further, year around substantial demand and faster growth and maturity ensures early and timely returns to the farmers.The hardiness and adaptability of native goat breeds and readily available vaccines for major diseases, drastically lowers the risks associated with goat rearing. Unemployed people caneasily create a great employment and income source through raising goats commercially as well as it can additional income to women and farmers on part time. 

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