Improvement On Inarching Method of Propagation of Mango

Dr. Bibhas Chandra Mazumdar
Dr. Bibhas Chandra Mazumdar
Method of Propagation of Mango
Method of Propagation of Mango

The commercial method of propagation of mango in India is Inarching, which is cumbersome, requires much skill,  involves high cost and the percentage of success is not high. Some other methods have been recommended to replace this method but the nurserymen are not much inclined to adopt those as they are apt to carry out this method since long past.   In the present article, an improved method of Inarching has been presented which is easy to perform,  involves less cost, and may have acceptability to the nurserymen.

In the horticultural nurseries in most parts of  India, the mango tree is conventionally propagated by the   Inarching method of grafting.  This method, belonging to the method of Approach Grafting is, however, confronted with a  number of difficulties. Some of these are, the technique is cumbersome and requires much skill to perform, the percentage of success is low even when done with great care and much time is required by the graft to become ready for planting in the orchard which is actually three years from the start.

Apart from these, another great difficulty lies in the fact that a  durable podium,  i.e., thatched roofing with bamboo poles and strips becomes necessary to be built up for maintaining the potted rootstock plants over that for the purpose of carrying out the grafting operation.

Erection of this thatched roofing becomes necessary as the scion shoots are needed to be used for grafting,  i.e.,  having similar maturity and thickness because those of the rootstock shoots are borne at the extremity of the top branches of the scion tree. Besides this,  after the grafting operation is done,  it becomes necessary to climb up the thatched roof with the help of a ladder in order to irrigate and take care of the potted plants that have been grafted. These operations are necessary to be done regularly until the grafts are detached from the scion tree and brought down from the roof.   Evidently, all the above steps involve high labor costs and eventuate high cost of the grafts.

To get  rid of  these  hazards,  a  number  of  superior  methods  of  grafting,  viz.,   Veneer  grafting,   Forkert  budding,   modified  Forkert  budding,  Chip  budding  and   Stone (Epicotyl) grafting   have  been  recommended  by  the  horticultural  scientists  in  India  to  replace  Inarching.

Nevertheless,   the   nurserymen   in  most  parts  of  India  are  not  inclined  to  give  up       the  method  and  their  argument  is ,  although  Inarching  is  a cumbersome   method,   it  is  difficult  to  replace  it  as  it  is  an  age-old  practice  and  the  malees (= grafters)  are  highly  accustomed  to  the  method.   Hence,  instead  of  replacing  the  method  of   Inarching  completely,  any  attempt  to  eradicate   its  hazards  and  thereby,  making  the  method  simplified  should    be  a practical  line  of  approachThe  present  article  has  taken  into  account  this  fact  and  has  devised  a method  which  has  aimed  at  simplifying  the   Inarching  method  of  grafting  and  this  is  described  in  the  following.  The   method   essentially   consists  of  artificially forcing   the  scion  tree  of  mango  to  creep  it up on  the  ground  such  that  construction  of  thatched  roofing  which  is  the  greatest  hazard  could  be  eliminated.

Apparently,  mango   being  an  erect  growing  tree,  its  trunk  grows  vertically  upwards.  But     by   artificial   manipulation,  it  is  possible  to    make  the  tree   crawling  on  the  ground  instead   of  allowing  it  to  grow  vertically  upward.  This  can  be performed  manually ,  adopting  simple  technique  and  without  use  of  any  chemical.    The  entire  process  is  delineated  below.

At  first,  a  sufficiently strong  grafted  mango  plant  of  the  desired  variety  which  is      to  be  used  as  the  scion  tree  is  planted  on  the  nursery  ground. The  ground  should  be  spacious  and  should  not  have  vegetation,  building  etc.  within   a  radius  of  6 – 9  metres. It  is  essential   that  the  grafted  mango  tree  which  is  to  be  used  as  the  scion  should  grow  vigorously  after  it  is  planted.  Hence,  the  site   of  its  planting  should  be  made  enriched.  

To make so,   during  summer season,  a  pit  of 50 – 60  cm  depth  and  70 – 80  cm  width  should  be  made  and  the  soil  dug  up  from  the  pit   should  be weathered. Accordingly,  as shown in  Figure – 2 ,  the  soil  dug  up  from  the  upper    part  of  the  pit  is   heaped  on  the  ground  at    one  side  of  the  pit.  Then   the  soil  dug  up     from  the  lower  part  of  the  pit  is  heaped  on   the  ground  at  the  other  side  of  it.   On   exposure   to   scorching   heat  of  summer  for  a  month,  insect eggs,  larvae  etc.,  if  any  present   in  the  dug  up  soil  will  get  destroyed.  Then,   just  before   rainy-season,  the  soil  

dug  up  respectively  from  the  upper  part  and the  lower  part  of  the  pit  should  be  separately mixed  with  15 – 20  kg  of    farmyard   manure ,  0.75 – 1 kg  of superphosphate,   0.15  kg  of   muriate  of  potash  along  with  a  a  little    quantity  of  neem  cake  or  5  percent   Aldrin.  

The  pit  should  then  be  filled  with  the  soil-manure  mixture.   Before   filling,  the  side  wall      of  the  pit  should  be  scraped   with  a   khurpi to  loosen  the  hard  crust  formed.   Filling  of      the  pit  should  be  done  in  such  a  manner  that  the  soil  dug  up  from  upper  part  of  the  pit  is  placed  at  the  lower  part  of  it  and  over  that,  dug  up  soil  from  the  lower  part  be  placed.

After  filling,  the  pit  should  be  watered  for  few  days  to  settle  the  soil  and  if  any  depression  is  noticed,  it  should  be  made    up  with  soil-manure  mixture. An  important  aspect  to  be  noted  is.

the grafted scion  plant  should be  planted in a  slightly slanting position,  such  that its  trunk maintains a 450 – 600 angle from the ground  level  and  not   in  a   vertically  straight manner.   After   few  months of  growth  of  the plant,  a   1 – 3  metre  long  strong  rope  should  be  taken  and  one  end  of  it  should  be  tied  near  the  tip  of  the  plant.  The  other  end  of  the  rope  should  be  tied  with  a  6 – 10 cm  long  iron  hook.   Then  the  rope  is  slightly  pulled  downwards  along  the  tilted  side  of  the  plant  and  in  this  tightened position, the hook  tied  to  the  other  end  is  firmly  infixed, i.e.,  pegged  to  the  ground.

the  malee  (grafter) would  sit  comfortably on a    low-heighted   stool  and  carry  out  the operation. Thus,  the necessity  of  erecting  thatched   roof    to  do  the  grafting  would  not be  necessary  in this method. When required   number   of the rootstock  plants  have  been   Inarch-grafted,  the  upright  shoots  of  the  scion  tree  that  were  not  used  should  be  forced  to  bend  like  above.   After several   years,  the  crawled   mango  tree   will   have  such  an  appearance  that  anybody  who    does  not  know  what  has  happened  there,  may  think  that  somebody  has  cut  off  a  mature  mango  tree  at  its  base  and  has   befelled   the  tree  on  the  ground.  Such a  crept  mango  tree  may  although  produce  some  flowers  but  fruits   do  not  develop  from  them.  (Some economically  important  plants  like  pineapple,  pulses  etc.     may however,  be  grown  there).

It  should  not  be  forgotten  that  creeping     of  a  mango  tree  is  not  its  inherited  character.  In  fact,  it  can  be  done  only  artificially  by  forcing  it. Thus, whenever  the  bending  force     is  not  applied,  the  shoots  will  again  tend  to  grow   vertically   upwards.   Hence,   bending of shoots should be done regularly as  long  as the  tree  will  be  used  to  obtain  scion  shoots  from  it.   Also that   the  crept  tree  should  be regularly applied with manure,  fertilizers,  irrigation  etc, so  that  large  number  of  scion  shoots  are  produced.

Dr. Bibhas Chandra Manumdar

M.SC Agri, PH.D

Prtofessor in Horticulture institute of Agriculture Sciences

Calcutta University

Kolkata, West Bengal – 700029

Mob- 09830272846

Email.- profbcmazumdar@yahoo.com

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