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Plant-parasitic nematode (Root-knot) associated with weed (Sida Cordifolia)

Weeds
(Sida Cordifolia)

Sida Cordifolia is considered an invasive weed in India, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Southern United States. It is a perennial sub-shrub of the mallow family Malvaceae. It is naturalized throughout the world and is considered a perennial weed. Its common name is BALA (Bariyaar). It has medicinal properties which are used in ayurvedic medicines. All parts of the plants are used to make medicines.

It is an erect, velvety subshrub and the branches, leaf, and flowers are stalked. This weed plays a major role in maintaining the population of nematodes available to attack susceptible crops when planted. They serve as reservoirs for the nematode’s population, providing food, shelter, and breeding site. The impact on crop production of weed hosts as reservoirs is grossly under-estimated. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are one of the three most economically damaging genera of plant-parasitic nematodes on horticultural and field crops. Root-knot nematodes are distributed worldwide on thousands of plant species. Bala plant is affected by root-knot nematode and it serves as a multiplying site that helps to cause disease in the main crop.

Introduction

Weeds are one of the major problems in crop production. The weeds serve as reservoirs for plant pathogens and nematodes. The Problem of weed host and plant-parasitic nematodes is particularly severe in the subtropical and tropical environment where weeds grow around the year. It has been found that many common agricultural weeds are an excellent host of plant-parasitic nematodes. Root-Knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). are one of the three most economically damaging genera of plant-parasitic nematodes on horticultural and field crops. Root-knot nematodes are distributed worldwide on thousands of plant species. Galling on roots usually indicates nematodes reproduction on weed or crop plants.

Weeds play a major role in maintaining the population of nematodes available to attack susceptible crops when planted. They serve as reservoirs for the nematode’s population, providing food, shelter, and breeding site. The impact on crop production of weed hosts as reservoirs is grossly under-estimated. Root-Knot nematodes were hosted by several weeds commonly found with tomato plants and cowpea plants. The common weeds are Amaranthus spp, Sida spp, Solanum spp. This article is about the root-knot of Sida Cordifolia (Bala/Baryiar) weed and its role as reservoirs of Meloidogyne spp. and symptoms, disease development of root-knot.

Sida cordifolia is known by various names such as Bariyaar in Hindi, BALA, Borson bharia in Assamese, Katturam in Malayam, etc. It is an invasive weed throughout Asia, Africa, Australia, etc. It is a perennial subshrub. It has many medicinal attributes. The various parts of Sida cordifolia possess different biological perspectives such as antidiabetic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activity. This plant (weed) has great potential for the development of ayurvedic and modern medicines. In herbal combinations, Sida cordifolia is used for weight loss, erectile dysfunction (ED), sinus problems, allergies, asthma, bronchitis, and weak bones (osteoporosis). In combination with ginger, Sida cordifolia root is used for fever. Root-knot nematodes damage plants by devitalizing root tips and causing the formation of swellings of the roots. These effects not only deprive plants of nutrients but also disfigure and reduce the market value of many root crops.

Symptoms

The main symptoms of the Root-Knot nematode are the formation of galls/knots which are visible only after uprooting the Bariyaar plant. Characteristic symptoms of the disease appear on the underground parts of the plants. Infected roots develop the typical root-knot galls that are two to several times as large in diameter as the healthy root (Fig. 1) several infections along the root give the root a rough, clubbed appearance. Usually, however, infected roots remain smaller and show necrosis and rotting, particularly late in the season.

Development of Disease

The Second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne spp. enter the roots behind the root tip and keep moving until they reach positions behind the growing point. There, they settle with their head in the developing vascular cylinder. Two or 3 days after the juvenile has become established. Enlargement and coalescing of cells continue for 2 to 3 weeks, and the giant cells invade the surrounding tissues irregularly. Each gall usually contains three to six giant cells, which are due to substances contained in the saliva secreted by the nematode in the giant cells during feeding. Swelling of the root results from excessive enlargement and division of all types of cells surrounding the giant cells and from enlargement of the nematode. As the females enlarge and produce their egg sacs, they push outward, split the cortex, and may become exposed on the surface of the root (Fig. 2) or remain completely covered, depending on the position of the nematode about the root surface.

An effective method to control

  • Root-knot can be controlled effectively in the greenhouse with steam sterilization of the soil or soil fumigation with nematicides.

  • Biological control of root-knot has been obtained experimentally by treating nematode infested soil with endospores of the bacterium Pasteuria penetrans, which is an obligate parasite of some plant-parasitic nematodes, or with preparations of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum; by treating transplants or infested soils with spores of the fungus Dactylella oviparasitica, which parasitizes the eggs of Meloidogyne nematodes.

  • The second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne are experimentally managed by the use of Catenaria anguillulae. It is a wonderful endoparasitic fungus that parasitizes the plant-parasitic nematodes.

  • Eliminate the weed and destroy it by burning it.

Conclusion

Sida cordifolia is a perennial weed that is attacked by Meloidogyne spp. because of its polyphagous nature, other weeds are also affected by the root-knot nematodes. The weed Bala has medicinal use because it’s all parts are utilized in making medicines. This plant plays a vital role in circulating the disease to main crops like tomato, cowpea, etc. by providing reservoirs for soil-borne pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes. Its management can be done by as listed above through the effective methods.

Authors

Ashwani Kumar Patel1*, Shiv Shankar Patel1, Abhishek Kumar2, Vandana Sahu1

1Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi Uttar Pradesh, 221005.

2Department of Plant Pathology, CCS HAU, Hisar Haryana 125004.

Author Email Id -ashwanipatel42@gmail.com

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