Potential Waste Utilization of Banana

Vartika Singh and Shaunak Singh
Vartika Singh and Shaunak Singh


Banana is one of the oldest tropical fruit of the world. It is also known as Adam’s fig, Apple of Paradise, Tree of wisdom, “Kalpataru” (a plant with virtue), Kera etc. Depending upon genomic constitution, botanical name of cultivated bananas are Musa acuminataMusa balbisiana, and Musa paradisiaca (Musa acuminate*Musa balbisiana). It belongs to genus Musa and family Musaceae. Origin of edible banana is South-East Asia. Banana is important high quality delicious fruit and considered as staple food in many countries of the world. It yields highest amount of energy-giving food per hectare. It is a rich source of carbohydrate (2-20mg/100g), vitamins like B3, B6, B12, C and E and minerals like sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus and is fair source of iron and calcium. Ripe fruit of banana contains up to 27% sugars which includes both reducing and non-reducing sugars. Banana can be cultivated throughout the year. However common problem recognized in banana tree is that it fruits only once or twice in its life time and after that it become waste or of no use and hence cut down which creates huge amount of banana tree waste like stem, leaves and rotten fruits. Therefore different banana parts like leaves, pseudo stem, fruit stalk (floral stalk/rachis), peels, inflorescence and rhizome can be used as various useful products of commercial values.  

Potential utilization of banana tree waste can be discussed as follows- 

1. Banana leaves:

  • Green banana leaves are widely used as biological plate (for serving food/eating plates) as it contains poly phenols. 

  • Banana leaves can be used as wrapping materials for ethnic or traditional food.

  • Green banana leaves can be also used as umbrellas.

  • Dried banana leaves can be used for making cigarette papers.

  • Dried banana leaves can be used for bedding purpose.

  • Dried leaf sheaths can be used for manufacturing of fans, mats and soft pliable flat sheets with cushioning properties which have utilization in packing material for bottles.

2. Banana bark:

  • Fibre and starch can be obtained from tender bark of banana and hence can be used in manufacturing of ropes and papers.

  • Banana bark can be processed into various functional durable craft products.

  • Banana bark can be used as acoustic absorbing material in homes and theaters.

3. Banana pseudostem:

  • Fibers obtained from the pseudostem have been used  as raw materials for textiles industries in the production of traditional handicrafts items.

  • High valued paper, paperboard and fibre can be produced.

  • Popular use of fibre obtained from banana pseudostem is manufacturing of  high-quality sanitary products  such as baby’s pampers cloth.

  • Marine ropes are also prepared from pseudostem part of banana because fiber is resistance to sea water and has buoyancy.

  • Other uses of fibers of pseudostem  includes manufacturing of coffee and tea bags, filter cloths, as reinforcement fibers for plaster, disposable fabrics, and light-density woven fabrics.

  • Raw plant fibre of banana act as enzymatic degumming using microbial strains. 

  • Male buds, pseudostem, leaves and many other parts of banana can be used as cattle feed.

  • Banana leaves and pseudostems act as  potential substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms.

4. Banana infloresence: 

  • Traditionally, inflorescence of banana used as food and medicine.

  • It is useful in curing bronchitis, dysentery, ulcers and in diabetics.

5. Banana peel:

  • Banana peel is widely used for removal of bad smell in palmolin oil.

  • Banana peel is widely used as for decontamination of water polluted by heavy metals like cadmium ions.

  • It is also used as bio-fuel production and bio-sorbents (treatment of water).

  • It is also used in cosmetics industries.

  • Cellulase production can be done by peel of banana.

  • Nano-fertilizer blend can be produced from its peel.

6. Banana waste for soil:

Banana waste act as good stimulating soil conditioner through solid-state fermentation process. Composting of banana waste can be converted into outstanding economical cheaper organic fertilizer.  Banana waste are adequate carrier of Azospirillum, Azotobacter and phosphate-solubilizer bacteria which enhanced soil properties.  


India, being a largest producer of banana creates huge amount of bio-mass waste every year. However, this available waste can be utilized in broader ways by proper utilization, efficient recycling and their management which could be beneficial for farmers, innovators, entrepreneurs and small scale industries as it generate employment and source of income for them by manufacturing of commercial products.  Banana waste have future prospects too regarding soil as well as environmental health as it produces eco-friendly products (eco-papers, bags, fibres, ropes etc.) which ultimately reduces environmental pollution. 


Phirke,  N.V.; Kothari,  R.M. (2005). Conservation and recycling of banana orchard waste: the need of time for Indian banana growers. Ecol Environ Conserv. 11:211–218. 

Doran, I.; Sen, B. and Kaya,  Z.J. (2005). The effects of compost prepared from waste material of banana on the growth, yield and quality properties of banana plants. Environ Biol. 26(1):7-12. 

Paepatung, N.; Nopharatana, A. and  Songkasiri, W. (2009). Bio-methane potential of biological solid materials and agricultural as wastes.  Asian J Energ Environ10(01):19–27.  


Vartika Singh. 
M.Sc. (Horticulture)  Fruit Science 
Shaunak Singh. 
M.Sc. (Agriculture) Horticulture in Vegetable Science 
College  of  Horticulture   and  Forestry 
Acharya  Narendra  Deva  University of  Agriculture  and  Technology,  Ayodhya-  224229,  Uttar Pradesh,  India. 
Corresponding  author: vartika815@gmail.com 

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