Processes Required for Plant Growth & Development

Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1

Growth is a characteristic of every living organism. Just like other living things, plants also show growth. It is an essential property of plants that enables them to obtain nutrients from places far from their own, such as air, soil, and water. The process of growth also helps plants compete with each other and protect their vital organs.

Photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration are the three main functions that govern plant growth and development. All three are necessary for the survival of the plant. A plant's ability to regulate these functions greatly influences its ability to compete and reproduce (as shown in Fig 1.1).

The Process of Photosynthesis and Its Role in Plant Growth

During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide gas is combined with water and solar energy, and converted into carbohydrates, a solid. Carbohydrate formation is a chemical method to store energy from the sun in the form of "food". Carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis provide energy for the growth and maintenance of all plants.
The Process of Respiration and Its Role in Plant Growth

Respiration leads to the production of adenosine triphosphate which acts as the energy currency of plant cells. Thus, this energy is used in the production of plant hormones that lead to the synthesis of auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins that promote plant growth and development. It maintains cell tonicity and helps in cell division.

The Process of Transpiration and Its Role in Plant Growth

Transpiration helps plants grow properly. The cooling effect of trees is due to the evaporation of moisture from the leaves.

Mineral Nutrition and Its Role in Plant Growth

Mineral nutrition is defined as inorganic nutrients naturally present in soil and food that are necessary for the normal functioning of the body of animals and plants. Minerals are important elements needed by the body. Plants and animals mainly need minerals.

The nutrients that plants need in very small amounts are called micronutrients. Some of them include boron, copper, manganese, iron, chlorine, and molybdenum.

The nutrients that plants need in larger amounts are called macronutrients. Some of them include sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and magnesium.

Meghana Bhardwaj Kaul

Senior Scientist- New Delhi

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