Role of Domestic Animals in Spread of Zoonosis

Domestic Animals

Animals give various points of interest to people. Various people team up with animals in their regular day-to-day existences, both at home and away from home. Animals give food, fiber, occupations, travel, game, companionship, and guidance to people over the globe. In both urban and provincial settlements, various animal species are getting famous as family unit pets which might be a wellspring of contamination for their proprietors.

Animals may spread viruses, bacteria and parasites. A portion of these organisms can be moved from animal to individual and may cause diseases. Such diseases are called zoonosis.

Zoonosis can be transmitted in different manners:

  • through the air

  • by eating debased meat or produce

  • through close contact with a contaminated animal

  • by contacting a territory or surface that a contaminated animal contacted

  • through mosquitoes or ticks

Zoonotic diseases contribute 60% to add up to animal irresistible diseases. Out of each 5 developing diseases, 4 are zoonotic. They are liable for at any rate 2.4 billion instances of human disease and 2.2 million deaths for each year. The pace of increase for rising irresistible diseases has expanded significantly over a century ago, and research discoveries have embroiled natural life as a significant wellspring of novel pathogens. We should perceive how these animals play in zoonotic disease transmission.

A portion of the zoonotic diseases where dogs do significant job in their spread are following-

1-Dogs go about as an intermediate host in rabies disease and are a significant wellspring of contamination for people. Rabies, a viral zoonotic disease, causes an immense number of death in India and world. Rabies are spread by bite of infected animal or when the saliva of an infected animal interacts with scraped skin or mucous layer.

2-Dogs go about as definitive host for Toxocara canis which is a causative agent of visceral larva migrants in people as they pick disease by passive ingestion of contaminated food and water.

3-Dogs act as maintenance hosts and shed bacteria in urine, placental fluids, and milk. These fluids contaminate water which is ingested by humans

A portion of the zoonotic diseases where felines do a significant job in their spread are following-

1- Cats act as a definitive host for toxoplasmosis. Humans get infection by contaminated food and water by faeces of cat, ingesting meat of infected animals containing cyst, from infected mother to foetus, sexually transmitted and organ transplant surgery.

2- Cats act as definitive host for cat scratch disease, caused by Bartonella Henselae.  It is spread by ctenocephalides felis flea which feeds on the blood of infected cat then it drops its faeces containing bartonella on cat’s body. When cat grooms or scratches then bartonella gets on teeth and claws. Cat may infect human by scratching or bitting.

Household animals harbor numerous irresistible diseases in subclinical form. Hydatidosis can be transmitted by dogs or sheep. People on ingesting contaminated food or water with Echinococcus granulosus eggs or ingesting raw meat containing cyst.

Household dairy cattle have assumed a focal job in human culture for a considerable length of time. They provide essential sources of meat, milk, other dairy products, fertilizer for crops, clothing.   This role continues to be vital in the lives of the most economically challenged people as cattle are often an important source of food security and revenue. For many countries like India, cattle represent the most valuable property they own—often being reserved only for the wealthiest in a society. Recent urbanization, population growth, and rising incomes have resulted in rapid growth and transformation of livestock production in the absence of a public health framework, thus creating an increased opportunity for zoonotic diseases to threaten human health.

Groups with greater exposure to cattle and cattle products have an increased risk of contracting bovine zoonotic infections. These groups include livestock handlers, veterinarians, abattoir workers, meat inspectors, and laboratory staff handling biological samples from infected cattle, and persons consuming unpasteurized milk or other dairy products and improperly prepared meats. As with many other infectious diseases, infants, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and those with other underlying health conditions are at increased risk of contracting bovine zoonotic infections.

Following are a few diseases spread because of cows

1-Cryptosporidiosis, Listeriosis, Staphylococcus infection spread due to ingestion of contaminated fed and water

2-Campylobacter infection spread by raw or undercooked poultry meat, drinking untreated water

3-Brucellosis spread by eating raw or unpasteurized dairy products

4-Inhalation of spores during processing of contaminated animal product, we can get anthrax infection.


Shiwam Dubey1, Keshav Kumar2, Mukesh Gangwar3 and Apeksha Jangir3

1YP 2nd, ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya. U. P.

2Division of Microbiology, ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P.

3Division of Livestock Products Technology, ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, U.P.

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