Soil Pollution
Soil Pollution

Soil pollution is brought on by a variety of factors, including pesticides, fertilizers, organic manure, chemicals, radioactive waste, abandoned food, clothing, leather products, plastics, paper, bottles, tins, and carcasses. Industrial waste contains chemicals including iron, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, cadmium, aluminum, cyanides, acids, and alkalis, among others, which can either directly or indirectly enter the soil through water. (for instance, by acid rain).

To protect crops against pests, fungi, etc., inappropriate and persistent use of herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides changes the fundamental makeup of the soils and renders it poisonous for plant growth. To combat soil-borne pests, organic insecticides such as DDT, aldrin, benzene hex chloride, etc. are utilized. They build up in the soil as microorganisms in the soil and water slowly break them down. As a result, they severely harm plant growth, stunting it and lowering the quantity and size of fruit produced. Their breakdown by products may be ingested by plants, which then pass them along to animals and people via food chains.

Radioactive pollutants from mining and nuclear activities could "fall-out" or travel through water to the land causing the growth of man to be aberrant and retarded. Excreta from people and animals that are used as organic manure to increase crop output contaminate the soil and vegetable crops with any diseases that may be present. When nitrates drain out of the soil and build up to harmful levels in the water supply, nitrification—the process of converting elemental atmospheric nitrogen or initially harmless organic molecules into soluble nitrates—contributes to water pollution. Therefore, the problems of soil pollution have been caused by activities such as irrigation (which produces salination), excessive fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, et. 

Soil Pollution
Soil Pollution

By limiting the use of the aforementioned soil pollutants, switching to organic farming, using improved agricultural techniques, etc., soil pollution can be reduced. The term "soil pollution" refers to the contamination of soils with substances, primarily chemicals, that are unnatural or present in greater than usual amounts and may have harmful consequences on people or other living things. It is challenging to define soil pollution precisely because there are conflicting views on what constitutes a pollutant.

For example, some people think using pesticides is acceptable as long as the outcome is not greater than what was intended, while others do not think using pesticides at all—not even chemical fertilizers—is acceptable. Aside from the direct addition of xenobiotic (man-made) chemicals, other factors that might contaminate soil include acidic precipitation, industrial waste, agricultural runoff waters, and radioactive fallout. Contaminants in soil can be either organic (those that contain carbon) or inorganic (those that don't). Fuel hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated aromatic chemicals, detergents, and pesticides are the most prevalent chemical categories of organic pollutants.

Nitrates, phosphates, heavy metals including cadmium, chromium, and lead, inorganic acids, and radionuclides are examples of inorganic species (radioactive substances). Agricultural runoffs, acidic precipitates, industrial waste products, and radioactive fallout are a few of the sources of these toxins. If harmful chemicals seep into the groundwater or if polluted runoff reaches streams, lakes, or seas, soil contamination may result in water pollution. The release of volatile chemicals into the atmosphere by soil is another natural way for soil to contribute to air pollution. Denitrification and ammonia volatilization are two ways that nitrogen can escape. Acid rain can be produced by the emission of sulphur dioxide and other sulphur compounds from the decomposition of organic molecules in soil. The most harmful soil contaminants in sewage are heavy metals and other potentially hazardous substances. Heavy metals are present in sewage sludge, which can build when it is applied frequently or in significant quantities, making the treated soil incapable of supporting even plant life. Additionally, non-water soluble chemicals affect plants that grow on contaminated soils, and they also have a tendency to build up more and more as you move up the food chain. The insecticide DDT was banned in the US because of its propensity to concentrate when it went from the soil to worms or fish, then to birds and their eggs.

This happened as higher-level organisms consumed lower-level animals that had already been exposed to the pesticide through consuming plants and other lower-level animals. In Lake Michigan, for instance, there are 2 parts per trillion (ppt) of DDT in the water, 14 ppb in the bottom mud, 410 ppb in amphipods (small water fleas and related organisms), 3 to 6 ppm in fish like Coho salmon and lake trout, and up to 99 ppb in herring gulls at the top of the food chain. In the past fifty years, one of the biggest worries for science and the general public has been the environment's ever-increasing pollution. The continual release of man-made organic chemicals into natural ecosystems is a result of the fast industrialization of agriculture, growth of the chemical industry, and the desire to provide affordable sources of energy. Consequently, a wide range of hazardous chemicals have polluted the atmosphere, aquatic bodies, and numerous soil habitats. These include the risk of acute toxicity, mutagenesis (genetic changes), carcinogenesis, and teratogenesis (birth defects) for humans and other organisms. Many of these compounds have the potential to cause negative effects in humans and other organisms after prolonged exposure or at high concentrations. Some of these man-made toxic substances are also resistant to physical, chemical, or biological breakdown and as a result pose a considerable environmental burden.

Many different in situ (on the spot, in the soil) and off-site (removal of contaminated soil for treatment) approaches are used to disinfect polluted soils. None of these are the best options for cleaning up polluted soils, and in many cases, a combination of cleaning methods may be required. The most popular decontamination technique for contaminated soils is to remove it and dispose of it in landfills or burn it. However, these techniques frequently turn one issue into another. Landfilling does little to detoxify polluted soil, while incineration eliminates harmful organic molecules from the soil but then releases them into the air, causing air pollution.

Many different soil washing procedures have been developed for the removal and recovery of heavy metals. These processes include physical ones as attrition scrubbing and wet-screening and chemical ones such treatments with organic and inorganic acids, bases, salts, and chelating agents. For instance, compounds like hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and citric acids, sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide, and the chelating agents EDTA and DTPA are employed to extract radionuclides and hazardous metals. However, the issue with these approaches is that they once more produce secondary wastes that would need additional hazardous waste treatment. In situ techniques, in contrast to those previously mentioned, are applied right on the contaminated site. The risk of further environmental impact is reduced in this situation since soil does not need to be dug. In situ biodegradation entails boosting naturally occurring microorganisms' activity and population through external stimulation. The soil pollutants are then reduced by the microorganisms. The biodegradation of soil contaminants is influenced by a variety of environmental, chemical, and managerial factors, including moisture content, pH, temperature, the type of microbial population present, and the availability of nutrients. Aerobic soil conditions, a soil pH in the neutral range (between pH 5.5 and 8.0), with an ideal reading occurring at about pH 7, and a temperature in the range of 20 to 30°C are all favorable for biodegradation. These physical factors are controllable, which supports the microbes' capacity to break down chemical pollutants. Bioremediation looks to be the least harmful and environmentally acceptable decontamination technology. The soil makes up the top layer of the earth's unsaturated zone. The natural body of the earth is composed of both mineral and organic components. It is created through intricate alterations to solid crust and the recycling of solid material. In addition to providing a home for many different species, soil also serves as a medium for plant life. Agriculture is based on soil. All plant life used as food for people and as animal feed depends on soil. Massive amounts of garbage from manufactured goods are being dumped on the ground, polluting the soil. Polluted water also contaminates the soil. Unhygienic behaviour, agricultural methods, and improper techniques for disposing of solid and liquid wastes all contribute to soil pollution. Atmospheric pollution also contributes to soil pollution. The use of chemicals in agriculture, the disposal of trash, mining, the smelting of metals, as well as the disposal of domestic garbage and sediments, untreated sewage, and industrial wastes, all contribute to soil contamination in industrialized nations.

Types of Soil Pollution

Any chemicals or toxins that harm living things might be considered soil pollution. Pollutants deteriorate soil quality, alter the natural makeup of the soil, and promote soil erosion. The source of the pollutant and its impact on the ecosystem can be used to distinguish between different types of soil contamination. Urban activities, industrial wastes, and agricultural pollution are some examples of soil contamination types.

Agricultural Pollution

  • Agricultural processes contribute to soil pollution.

  • Fertilizers increase crop yield and also cause pollution that impacts soil quality.

  • Pesticides also harm plants and animals by contaminating the soil.

  • These chemicals get deep inside the soil and poison the ground water system.

  • Runoff of these chemicals by rain and irrigation also contaminate the local water system and is deposited at other locations.

 Industrial Waste

  • About 90% of oil pollution is caused by industrial waste products.

  • Improper disposal of waste contaminates the soil with harmful chemicals.

  • These pollutants affect plant and animal species and local water supplies and drinking water.

  • Toxic fumes from regulated landfills contain chemicals that can fall back to the earth in the form of acid rain and can damage the soil profile. Urban Activities

  • Human activities can lead to soil pollution directly and indirectly.

  • Improper drainage and increase run-off contaminates the nearby land areas or streams.

  • Improper disposal of trash breaks down into the soil and it deposits in a number of chemical and pollutants into the soil. These may again seep into groundwater or wash away in local water system. • Excess waste deposition increases the presence of bacteria in the soil.

  • Decomposition by bacteria generates methane gas contributing to global warming and poor air quality. It also creates foul odour and can impact quality of life.

Causes of Soil Pollution

Numerous human activities that affect the soil lead to soil contamination, or soil pollution. The indiscriminate use of agricultural chemicals, such as pesticides, fertilizers, etc., is frequently linked to soil pollution. Plant pesticides can leach into the ground and have long-lasting impacts. Examine the risks associated with pesticides. In consequence, some of the dangerous fertilizer additives (such as cadmium) may build up above their lethal levels, ironically harming crops. When crops are watered with contaminated water or with mineral fertilizers, heavy metals can infiltrate the soil. Toxins may leach into the nearby soil as a result of poor sewage systems, improper landfills, or the bursting of subterranean bins. Acid rains caused by industrial fumes mixing in rain falls on the land, and could dissolve away some of the important nutrients found in soil, as such change the structure of the soil.

 Manufacturing facilities for iron, steel, power, and chemicals that recklessly use the Earth as a landfill frequently leave behind long-lasting consequences. Rain-washed fuel leaks from cars can seep into the surrounding soil and contaminate it. Soil erosion occurs when soil particles become loose and are transported away by water or wind. Deforestation is a key contributor to this problem. The upshot is that the soil loses both its structure and crucial nutrients. Following are a few potential sources of soil pollution:

  • Industrial waste products, such as dangerous gases and chemicals.

  • The use of chemicals like herbicides, fertilizers, and insecticides in agriculture.

  • An inefficient or improper soil management system.

  • Poor irrigation techniques.

  • Improper septic system management and upkeep.

  • Leakage of sanitary waste.

  • Acid rains are caused when toxic emissions from factories mix with rain.

  • When it rains, gasoline leaks from vehicles are washed away and end up in the nearby soil.• Unhealthy waste management practices allow sewage to leak into landfills and neighboring bodies of water.

  • Agriculture practices that use pesticides leave poisons in the environment for a very long time. Additionally harming beneficial soil creatures like earthworms, these pollutants result in poor soil quality.

  • When a proper garbage disposal system is absent, the land becomes littered with trash. These contaminants can prevent water from entering the soil, which has an impact on the soil's ability to retain water.

  • Nuclear waste that is improperly disposed of can pollute the land and result in mutations.

  • Inadequate sanitary systems in villages might lead to severe infections owing to night time soil pollution.

Effects of soil pollution

The presence of anthropogenic activity is the primary cause of soil contamination. These waste products pollute the soil since they are formed of chemicals that are not found in nature. Chemicals used in agriculture, industrial activity, and inappropriate waste disposal are the main causes of soil pollution. Due to both direct and indirect contact with polluted soil, pollution poses health concerns. The ecological equilibrium is greatly disturbed by soil contamination, and the health of the creatures is at stake. The impacts of soil contamination are highly unsettling and can cause significant disruptions in the ecological balance and wellbeing of earth's living organisms. Normally, filthy soil makes it impossible for crops to grow and thrive. However, if any crops do manage to thrive, they may have absorbed harmful chemicals from the soil, which could have a major negative impact on the health of those who consume them. Sometimes, increasing soil salinity is a sign of pollution in the soil. In such a situation, soil loses its ability to support plant life and frequently turns useless and barren. Numerous beneficial soil species may perish when soil pollution changes the soil's structure. This could affect larger predators and push them to relocate to new locations in search of food, in addition to further diminishing the soil's capacity to support life. People who live close to polluted terrain frequently have migraines, nausea, exhaustion, skin conditions, and even miscarriages. Some of the longer-term impacts of soil contamination include cancer, leukemia, reproductive issues, kidney and liver damage, and central nervous system impairment, depending on the contaminants that are present in the soil. These health issues may be caused by either direct poisoning from the polluted land (such as children playing on land with hazardous waste) or indirect poisoning from the polluted land (e.g. eating crops grown on polluted land, drinking water polluted by the leaching of chemicals from the polluted land to the water supply etc.).

Long term effects of soil pollution

The long term effects of soil pollution are many and can be difficult to deal with, depending on the nature of the contamination.

How Soil Gets Polluted

Because soil functions as its own ecosystem, it is relatively delicate to the application of outside substances. That's good for us if we want to add compost, fertilizer, and soil amendments to the soil to make it healthier, but not so wonderful if we want to prevent soil contamination. There are numerous methods for soil to become contaminated, including

• Overuse of pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers

• Seepage from a landfill

• Industrial waste discharge into the soil

• Contaminated water percolation into the soil

• Rupture of underground storage tanks

• The three most frequent substances that pollute soil are: pesticides, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons   

• Cleaners When these substances stick to the soil, either directly through spills or through contact with previously contaminated soil, soil contamination occurs. The long-term repercussions of soil contamination are becoming a bigger problem globally as the world grows more industrialized. 150 million miles of China's agriculture are estimated to be poisoned. Contamination of soil can be a health risk even when it is not used to grow food. This is particularly true if the soil is located in parks, neighborhoods, or other public areas. Different health impacts will result based on the type of contaminant in the soil. Whether the chemicals are currently being used or have been outlawed but are still present in the soil, the effects can vary from developmental issues, such as those seen in children exposed to lead, to cancer from chromium, and other chemicals found in fertilizer. Leukemia risk is increased by some soil toxins, while liver issues, kidney damage, and changes to the central nervous system are other possible side effects. Simply put, those are the long-term consequences of soil pollution. Short-term side effects of soil chemical exposure include weariness, nausea, headaches, and rashes on the exposed skin. Food should no longer be grown on polluted soil since the toxins could seep into the produce and harm consumers. When contaminated soil is utilized to grow food, yields are typically lower than they would be on the uncontaminated ground. Due to increased soil erosion brought on by a lack of vegetation, which can disseminate toxins to previously uncontaminated land, this can lead to even greater damage. Additionally, the pollutants will alter the composition of the soil and the kinds of microorganisms that reside there. Larger predatory creatures will also be forced to leave the region if certain organisms die off because they no longer have access to food, or they will perish altogether. Soil contamination has the potential to alter entire ecosystems. Soil can be restored to its ideal state or removed in order to allow the area to be used for agriculture once more. Transporting contaminated soil to a location where people won't be exposed to the chemicals is one option, as is aerating the soil to remove some of the pollutants (which can add to the problem of air pollution chemicals can be released into the air). Other possibilities include bioremediation, which uses microorganisms to break down pollutants, electromechanical systems for extracting chemicals, and chemical containment by paving over the polluted region.

All of them are not the best options. The best course of action is to avoid contamination in the first place. Choosing to farm organically is an excellent method to protect the land (and yourself) from chemicals contained in pesticides and other common garden chemicals, however it won't completely prevent all potential pollution problems. Pesticides' effects on soil microorganisms can have a long-lasting ripple effect. Healthy soil depends on microorganisms. Your plants won't thrive to their full potential without them. Microorganisms are creatures that are too small for the human eye to see. They inhabit the soil's topmost stratum. Numerous microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa, can be found in soil. The decomposition and recycling of organic compounds in the soil are carried out by microorganisms. They facilitate the plant's uptake of crucial nutrients. Bradyrhizobium, a bacteria that fixes nitrogen, is an illustration of this. It is found in a nodule on the soybean plant. It gives the plant nitrogen and promotes growth. Microorganisms known as biopesticides can aid a plant's defense against pests. Antimicrobial metabolites, antibiotics, and extracellular enzymes are some of these microorganisms. Scientists have not thoroughly investigated the potential of these biopesticides. It is hoped that research will be able to duplicate the benefits of the biopesticides, reducing the demand for dangerous chemical pesticides in the long run. Pesticides are used to eliminate insects that pose a threat to plants. Pesticides eliminate particular plant pests like slugs, beetles, and flying insects. Most pesticides contain compounds that are capable of killing beneficial soil-dwelling creatures in addition to garden pests. Some of these substances can linger in the soil for many years, preventing vital microbes from assisting in soil activity. The following chemical pesticides are frequently used in gardens and by large-scale crop producers: Basic Copper Sulfate, Silica Gel, Sodium Fluoride, Hydrogen Cyanide, Carbon Disulfide, Methylchloroform, Fenthion, and Boric Acid are just a few examples. In the past, literally hundreds of different pesticides have been produced and sprayed to soil. We are just now starting to comprehend the effects of applying these harmful chemicals to the soil. Plants will no longer grow or will develop slowly in areas where pesticides are utilized regularly. Unfortunately, a lot of herbicides can also kill the vital soil microorganisms in addition to their intended targets. Chemicals that have been applied to plants in an area over time will eventually seep into the soil. Once inside the soil, they have the ability to destroy the soil's microorganisms, which break down organic matter and promote plant growth. In soil that has been exposed to hazardous substances, it may take years before microorganisms may once again thrive there. Pesticides without the Harmful Chemicals The use of organic pesticides by the average gardener helps maintain a healthy equilibrium in the soil. Numerous natural insecticides contain minerals or other plant components that both deter pests and decompose swiftly in the soil. Here are some examples of typical organic pesticides:

  • Cayenne pepper spray—Can be used to repel hazardous insects by misting plant leaves with it.

  • Soap spray—Used to kill aphids on plants as well.

  • Tobacco powder: By combining water and the finely ground tobacco leaves, a spray can be created. It is used to eliminate sucking insects like aphids, thrips, and spider mites that attack plants.

  • Pyrethrin—a chemical derived from chrysanthemum plants. This natural pesticide is used to get rid of grubs and other ground pests.

  • Neem: A product of the neem tree. used to manage caterpillars, mealy bugs, white flies, leaf miners, gypsy moths, and other pests. Sabadilla is a name that comes from the sabadilla lily. used to get rid of squash bugs, stink bugs, leaf hoppers, and caterpillars. The ecological balance and the health of living things are gravely disturbed by soil degradation at an increasing rate. Following are a few implications of soil pollution:

  • An imbalance in the vegetation and fauna that live in the soil.

  • Soil contamination reduces soil fertility, which lowers soil productivity.

  • Pyrethrin—a chemical derived from chrysanthemum plants. This natural pesticide is used to get rid of grubs and other ground pests.

  • Neem: A product of the neem tree. used to manage caterpillars, mealy bugs, white flies, leaf miners, gypsy moths, and other pests. Sabadilla is a name that comes from the sabadilla lily. used to get rid of squash bugs, stink bugs, leaf hoppers, and caterpillars. The ecological balance and the health of living things are gravely disturbed by soil degradation at an increasing rate. Following are a few implications of soil pollution:

  • An imbalance in the vegetation and fauna that live in the soil.

  • Soil contamination reduces soil fertility, which lowers soil productivity.

  • Pollutants in soil cause alteration in soil structure, causing death of many soil organisms. This can affect the food chain.

Effects on humans

  • The effects of soil pollution on human health are significant. Health risks result from eating food produced by crops and plants grown on contaminated soil. This could account for both minor and terminal illnesses.

  • Prolonged contact with contaminated soil alters the body's genetic composition and increases the risk of chronic illnesses and congenital problems.

  • Prolonged exposure to solvents, heavy metals, petroleum, and agricultural chemicals can cause cancer.

  • Long-term exposure to benzene is linked to an increased incidence of leukemia. Kidney injury occurs more frequently when mercury is present. Liver toxicity has been associated to cyclodienes. Organophosphates may set off a cascade of events that blocks the neuromuscular junction.

  • Chlorinated solvents cause central nervous system depression, liver, and kidney damage.

On plant growth

  • Because of soil contamination, the ecological system's delicate equilibrium is compromised.

  • The majority of plants are unable to quickly respond to changes in soil chemistry.

  • The soil's microorganisms are deteriorating and causing further soil erosion issues.

  • Soil contamination is harmful to human health;

  • It reduces soil fertility, making it unsuitable for agriculture and local plants to survive.

  • Most biological forms cannot survive on contaminated land.

On soil fertility

  • The harmful compounds found in the soil as a result of pollution can reduce soil fertility and reduce soil production.

  • Fruits and vegetables grown on polluted soil lack nutritious qualities.

  • Consuming these could be harmful and result in major health issues for the consumer.

Toxic dust

  • Toxic gas and odours emissions from landfills harm the environment and have a negative impact on some people's health.

  • People are inconvenienced by the offensive odour. On soil structure:

  • Soil pollution can cause the death of numerous soil creatures, such as earthworms, which can change the structure of the soil and push other predators to seek food elsewhere.

Control of soil pollution

Many strategies have been put out to reduce pollution. Environmental clean-up initiatives demand a lot of effort and money. Some actions to lessen soil pollution include:

  • The use of plastic bags thinner than 20 microns is prohibited.

  • Reusing discarded plastics.

  • Prohibition of deforestation.

  • Supporting programs for plantations.

  • Supporting agroforestry and social programs.

  • Executing awareness campaigns.

  • Reducing the usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers.

  • Recycling items like paper and plastic.

  • Prohibit the use of plastic bags, a major source of pollution.

  • Material reuse.

  • Keeping forests intact and encouraging their growth.

  • Appropriate and secure disposal of wastes, such as nuclear waste.

  • Organic fertilizers and insecticides ought to take the place of chemical ones.

  • Supporting agroforestry and social activities.

  • Executing several pollution awareness campaigns.

Prevention of soil pollution

Soil pollution is a result of toxic chemical substances, salts, radioactive materials, poisons, and other trash. The health of plants and animals is negatively impacted by these. Both organic and inorganic components can be found in soil. The breakdown of plant and animal matter produces organic material. This frequently makes up the soil's topmost layer. It has taken thousands of years for organic soil, such as rocks, to form. Organic soil makes up the top layer, while inorganic soil makes up the layers below. The inorganic layers have also been gradually contaminated. Agricultural soil pollution, industrial waste-related soil pollution, and urbanization-related soil pollution are a few examples of the various types of soil pollution. The mineral content of the soil is damaged as a result of these many forms of pollution, which also impair soil fertility. As a result, steps must be made to prevent soil pollution. Most farmers started using chemical fertilizers to boost crop yield. Without a question, the yield did rise, but at the expense of the soil's fertility. It will take a very long time to get the soil's fertility back to where it was, but someone has to start somewhere. For the same, drastic steps are needed. Farmers ought to be urged to begin utilizing organic fertilizers. These fertilizers' microorganisms will contribute to the soil's becoming more fertile. Along with fertilizers, farmers must switch to biopesticides and fungicides, commonly referred to as herbicides, to prevent soil pollution. Although it will take a little longer for these chemicals to react, they have no negative effects on the soil. Manure works best when used as a pesticide and fertilizer since it has less negative effects than its chemical counterpart. When one examines the facts surrounding soil pollution, it becomes clear that hazardous waste is a significant contributor to the problem. Therefore, before being disposed of, industrial toxic waste should be treated to lessen its toxicity. The waste should be disposed of using responsible procedures at the same time. The best option, however, is to avoid using dangerous chemicals unless they are absolutely necessary. Even though recycling waste has been the subject of extensive propaganda, little actions have been performed in this direction. The amount of land pollution generated by landfills will be significantly decreased if each family is required to recycle waste. The area that was so preserved can be effectively used for a variety of greater purposes. People began choosing plastic containers, bags, and other items when plastic was introduced because they could be easily discarded after use. Plastic, on the other hand, takes a very long time to decompose, making it one of the biggest contributors to soil contamination. People should think about switching to reusable containers instead, such as glass, cotton bags, etc. Even though paper deteriorates more quickly, many trees are cut down to make paper bags. Therefore, choosing cotton bags is the best option. Similar to this, one should choose to use cloth napkins, handkerchiefs, etc. in the kitchen rather than tissue papers, etc. Landfills will be greatly reduced as a result of this. Without a doubt, organic items are more expensive than those produced using chemicals. However, purchasing organic goods will promote increased organic manufacturing. Thus, soil pollution can be avoided. Deforestation control measures must be implemented quickly in order to minimize soil pollution. When there are no trees to shield the top layer of soil from being carried by various natural forces like water and air, soil erosion results. At the same time, precautions should be made to prevent overgrazing and over-cropping, which worsen the condition of the soil layer and cause flooding and soil erosion. Although many chemicals, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, are essential for plant growth, their excessive usage is one of the main causes of soil contamination. One of the simplest and most crucial preventive steps is to reduce or completely stop using these substances. Because manures have less negative environmental effects than pesticides, they are frequently suggested by environmentalists and agriculturalists. Rhizobium is one of the microorganisms that can be utilized in the bio-fertilization process to boost soil fertility instead of using chemicals. Controlling weed growth is a typical strategy used to reduce soil contamination. Weeds are undesirable plants that grow next to the primary plant and frequently cause the soil to become more mineral rich as a result. Before cultivating the soil, one frequent practice is to cover it with layers of newspaper or plastic sheets to inhibit the growth of weeds. Reforestation and trash recycling are two more popular strategies for avoiding soil pollution. Deforestation, or the removal of trees, frequently causes soil erosion, which, as a result of the soil's loss of fertility, causes soil contamination. Reforestation is a good way to stop soil pollution because of this. Another efficient and popular way to stop the phenomenon of soil contamination is to recycle items like plastics, papers, and other materials in order to reduce the amount of trash or garbage that ends up in landfills.

  • Effective regulatory initiatives must be implemented to reduce soil contamination.

  • Recycle and reuse discarded materials. Or even better, cut back on consumption and garbage. The less waste we produce, the less likely it is that it will wind up in our soil.

  • The public has to be made aware of the damage that littering causes.

  • Use organic insecticides and fertilizers on gardens because they are typically made of natural ingredients, biodegrade quickly, and don't disrupt the soil's delicate ecosystem.

  • Demand natural and organic foods, as they are grown without the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Organic foods are better for you and your family than conventional foods, not to mention the environment. Study the advantages of organic food.

  • Reduce your use of paper. Use recycled paper instead. Less trees would have to be felled as a result, resulting in less deforestation. Read about the environmental advantages of recycling. People have long held the misconception that the only effective method for removing pests from gardens and agriculture fields is the use of dangerous chemical pesticides. Pesticide use has caused soil pollution, and it can take years or even decades for some of these chemicals to degrade. Fortunately, many organic compounds are just as efficient. When organic pesticides are used, their detrimental effects on soil microorganisms are reduced. People need to stop using dangerous pesticides and start utilizing natural ones that decompose swiftly in sunlight and soil. The quicker a chemical degrades, the sooner the soil can get back to being healthy. The majority of organic insecticides can be used around both people and animals without risk. Fruits and vegetables may easily be washed to remove them, making them healthier for you and your family to consume.


Adriano, D.C.; Bollag, J. M. Frankenberger, W.T.; and Sims, R.C., eds. (1999). Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils. Agronomy monograph 37. American Society of Agronomy.

Miller, R.W., and Gardiner, D.T. (1998). Soils in Our Environment, 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Pierzynski, G.M.; Sims, J.T.; and Vance, G.F. (2000). Soils and Environmental Quality, 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ways-to-prevent-soilpollution/#sthash.mF239tOv.dpuf world-soil-day

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