Transform Kinnow Peel into Eco-Friendly Bioenzymes; Know How (This image has been created with Midjourney)
Transform Kinnow Peel into Eco-Friendly Bioenzymes; Know How (This image has been created with Midjourney)

Kinnow is one of the important citrus crops of northern India, especially in Punjab. It contributes over 50% of the national produce. However, the start of kinnow season in Punjab also brings with it the falling of fruits (kinnow droppings), which are considered a total waste by farmers. When this waste kinnow decomposes, it pollutes the environment and affects the healthy fruit still on the plants through pests.

In addition, processing and utilization of kinnow into various products eventually lead to the generation of waste in the form of peel and pomace, amounting to almost 50% of citrus fruit mass. Thus, the waste generated from kinnow droppings and the processing of kinnow crops is one of the crucial hurdles for farmers that demand urgent attention. The kinnow dropping as well as waste from the processing industries can be utilized to produce bioenzymes.

Bioenzymes are fermented organic formulations that can be produced from any organic material like fresh kitchen waste (fruit and vegetable peels), leaves and flowers fruit waste, etc. It is also known as an eco-enzyme (natural and eco-friendly), garbage enzyme, kitchen enzyme, or fruit enzyme (as it is composed of fruit/vegetable kitchen waste). It has a dark brown color with a strong sweet-sour fermented scent. Moreover, it consists of numerous applications that cover households, agriculture, animal husbandry, and many more.

It may be used as an effective alternative to harsh chemicals such as bleach, phenyl, and chemical solutions, that are used in households to clean bathrooms, toilets, floors, tiles, and other surfaces. Chemically, bioenzyme is a mixture of complex organic substances such as proteins, enzymes, organic acids, salts, and other materials that are by-products of the natural fermentation of organic substrate by the native bacteria/yeast. Many farmers in Punjab are producing bioenzymes from different organic wastes for various applications. However, substantial scientific understanding has been lacking for bioenzymes to explore more significant benefits and better performance. Therefore, PAU has recommended technology for bioenzyme preparation from kinnow droppings/waste with elaborative scientific knowledge.

Technology for the Preparation of Bioenzymes:

Kinnow droppings/waste are mixed with jaggery and water in a ratio of 3:1:10 and filled in plastic airtight containers with a head space of 10–15 %. The containers are placed at room temperature away from sunlight for 3 months. At the onset of fermentation, gases start to accumulate in the space of the container that needs to be released at regular intervals by loosening the lid once a day (for the first one week at least).

From the second week onwards, the gas activity reduces a bit and gases are released on alternate days. After 3 months, the solid settles at the base while the clear solution comes at the top. The clear content is filtered and stored in airtight plastic bottles at room temperature. The prepared bioenzyme is transparent, light brown with sweet sour odour, and its pH ranges between 3.0 to 4.0. No pathogens have been detected in the bioenzymes and heavy metals are either absent or below permissible limits which indicates that it is safe to use for various applications. The shelf-stability of bioenzymes is approximately one year without any contamination. The total cost of bioenzyme preparation is around Rs. 20/litre. Hence, it is an economical, viable, and environment-friendly technology.

Directions for Use:

  • Use 1-2 caps in 5 litre water for floor cleaning.

  • Apply directly for toilet & wash basin cleaning as per requirement.

  • Use 10 ml in 1 litre water for other multipurpose cleanings (glass, tables, chairs, etc.). Quantity can be reduced or increased as per surface condition.

  • Use directly for drain unclogging.

This cost-effective, easy-to-use technology will not only be helpful in the valorization of citrus waste but also for budding entrepreneurs to start a profitable venture.

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