Maize cultivation

Maize is the main and most abundantly produced cereal crop. It is on third place after wheat and rice. Maize is also source of animal feed. Cultivation of maize was introduced in south America from Mexico according to genetic studies of Embrapa.

  • India

    1 May - 30 June
Maize field
Maize field
  • Common name- Corn
  • Botanic name- Zea mays
  • Origin- Southern Mexico, Central America


  • Maize is a cereal grain also known as queen of cereals.

  • Maize possesses highest genetic yield potential among the cereals.

  • It is one of the world’s most important food crop.

  • Maize is a cross pollinated crop.

  • Maize is typically yellow in color due to presence of cryptoxanthin. Maize is also available in different colors like red, orange, purple blue white and black.

  • India produces 5.4% of maize in the world.

Nutritive Value:

  • Maize contains protein in range of 10-15%, depending on the variety.

  • Corn contains a sufficient quantity of fiber. We can obtain 16 gram of fiber form common bag of cinema popcorn.

  • Enough quantity of ubiquinone, Vitamin E and phytosterols are available in maize.


Maize grain contains








Crude fiber





  • Maize is suitable for humid and warm weather, as it is a tropical plant.

  • In the world maize is cultivated in different climatic situations.

  • Maize requires 21°C of temperature for germination.

  • 500-750 mm of rainfall is quite appropriate for its ideal growth.


Maize is grown in all three seasons in India.









However, best result of cultivation can be seen in Rabi and spring season.

Corn cob
Corn cob


  • pH range- 5.5 to 7.5

  • Heavy soil should be avoided.

  • Proper drainage is mandatory.

  • Prevention from salinity and water logging is must.

Fertilizers and Manure:

Fertilizers provide balanced nutrients to soil for better productivity. Maize requires following fertilizers:

  • Nitrogen- 100-120Kg/ha

  • Phosphorus- 60Kg/ha

  • Potassium oxide- 40Kg/ha

Application of 1/3rd of the Nitrogen and Phosphorus is required to be done before sowing.

Land preparation:

  • Fine tilth field is required for the cultivation of maize.

  • Ploughed to a depth of 25-30cm with the application of mould board.

  • Before completing last harrowing, 10-15 tons of FYM or compose would be enough to enhance the productivity.

Corn Cob
Corn Cob

Seed rates:

Seed rates can differ depending on their varieties.

  • Grain- 20Kg/ha

  • Sweet corn- 8Kg/ha

  • Baby corn- 25Kg/ha

  • Popcorn- 12Kg/ha

  • Green cob- 20Kg/ha

  • Fodder- 50Kg/ha

Plant spacing:                                                                               

Generally adopted spacing is 60×20


  • Yield- 10 to 20 quintal per hectare.

  • Up to 40 quintal per hectare can be obtained with hybrids.


Name of hybrid

Grain type

Important facts

'Ganga Safed-2

Medium, white, semi-flint

Generally adapted, resistant to foliar diseases, medium maturing hybrid.


Bold, yellow, semi-flint

Suitable for peninsular India, good husk cover, resistant to leaf blight and downy mildew.


Bold, yellow, semi-flint

Resistant to leaf,

Downy mildew,

Maturing days- 105-110


Bold, white, dent

A medium maturing hybrid, adopted by the starch industry, high starch recovery.



  • The right time harvesting is when sheath turns brownish, grains become hard with less than 20% moisture.

  • After harvesting crop should be piled up for 24 hours and then sun dried for 5 to 6 days to reduce the moisture to 10% to 12%. 


  • The crucial stages of irrigation is silking and tasseling.

  • Water storage would reduce 20% of yield.

  • 500-600mm water is required for irrigation.

  • Light soil requires 10 irrigations while clay loam soil requires 8 irrigations.

FactCheck in Agriculture Project

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