Agripedia

9 Varieties of Mushroom that You Must Know

Sangeeta Soni
Sangeeta Soni

Part of the fungi family, but basically mushrooms are classified into vegetables. They share some characteristics with plants and if we will try to go deeper for knowledge about mushrooms, they share some characteristics even with animals. Mushrooms contain 90% water and contain significantly low calories and fats. Best part is they taste awesome.

One more surprising fact about mushrooms is that along with high nutritional values they are natural non animal source of vitamin D, unlike any other vegetable. Just like human body, when exposed to sunlight, they also absorb vitamin D.

Varieties of mushrooms

1. Button Mushroom

Button mushrooms are the most common type of mushrooms, also known as white mushroom or baby mushroom and cultivated mushroom. These mushrooms can be eaten raw or cooked, mostly included in salads, soups and on pizza toppings. Cultivation of button mushrooms started in 16th century. Out of total annual production of mushrooms, 85% is of button mushrooms.

2. Cremini Mushroom

These are of same species as button mushroom but are of brown colour, firmer texture and have slightly intense flavor. These are also called as crimini mushroom. These mushrooms are often called as baby bella or baby Portobello mushroom.

3. Portobello Mushroom

Full grown mature crimini mushroom or button mushroom are called Portobello mushroom. These mushrooms are much larger in size and they retain back their mild flavor.

The difference in above three varieties of mushrooms is just age. All three are species of button mushroom.

Read More: Profitable Method of Growing Mushrooms at Home in 3 Steps; Read its Unheard Facts & Health Benefits

4. Oyster Mushroom

These mushrooms looks like oysters therefore called oyster mushrooms. These are third largest cultivated mushrooms. The body of these mushrooms is shell or spatula with different shades white, cream, grey, pink, yellow depending upon the species. Oyster mushrooms are third largest grown mushrooms. These are easy to grown or cultivated on decaying wood. These mushrooms taste is mild and sweet and have velvety texture. One more type of oyster mushrooms is King Oyster mushroom. These are grown on top of a thick white stem and have firm meaty texture.

5. Porcini Mushroom

These are true wild mushrooms, not cultivated or farmed but are edible. These are found in wet forests where pine, oak and hemlock trees grow. They are slightly reddish brown and have thick stem and have nutty flavor. Porcini contain iron, vitamin A, vitamin C and some protein. Dried Porcini mushroom are quite common as compare to fresh ones as they are not easily available. They mostly grow in Italy, North America, New Zealand and South Africa.

6. Enoki Mushroom

These mushrooms are most common in Asian cooking. They come in large tassels of tiny mushrooms with long stems and small caps. These are also called as Enokitake or Winter mushrooms or Golden needle mushrooms. Enokis are known to have pleasing fruity flavor. These are of two varieties, wild and cultivated. These mushrooms are rich in vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, iron, calcium, copper, phosphorus and selenium.

7. Shimeji Mushroom

These mushrooms are also called as Beach brown mushrooms and Buna shimeji. These are grown on dead beach trees. Shimejis are native to East Asia but also found in North Europe. They are little bitter when eaten raw and caps give crunchy nutty flavor when cooked. They add a rich umami flavor to dishes.

8. Reishi Mushroom

Reishi mushroom are medicinal mushrooms used for treatment of many infections, pulmonary diseases and cancer. These cultivated on hardwood log or sawdust. And sold as food but are tough and bitter.

9. Shiitake Mushroom

Shiitake mushrooms are commonly used in Asian cuisine and also known as Black forest, Black winter, Black mushroom and Brown oak. They are also considered to have medicinal benefits. These mushrooms are native of Japan. Fresh Shiitakes have woodsy flavor and aroma and meaty texture. These are low in calories and rich in fiber and vitamin B and also have anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects.

So, above written were all varieties of edible mushrooms. With this, your knowledge about edible mushrooms must be enhanced.

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mushroom

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