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Different Types of Seeds Explained

In this article, we'll explain what a seed is, how to classify seeds using an example, and how to produce a final certified seed. Let's get started without further ado!

Binita Kumari

A seed is a type of planting material that is used to propagate plants. It is the most fundamental agricultural input. The fertilized ovule obtained following pollination and fertilization of flowering plants is also known as seed. After germination, the seed produces a healthy plant. Seeds are vegetative elements such as bulbs, cuttings, grafts of any sort, corms, tubers, rhizomes, setts, and tubers.

In this article, we'll explain what a seed is, how to classify seeds using an example, and how to produce a final certified seed. Let's get started without further ado!

Classes of seeds:

In India, seeds are divided into four categories: nucleus seed, breeder seed, foundation seed, and certified seed. Different classes of seeds are required for the growth of high-quality seeds under the watchful eye of a plant breeder or seed certification agency, in order to deliver seeds of registered varieties to farmers for sowing.

Nucleus seed:

This is the genetically and physically pure seed produced by the plant breeder who developed the variety without any impurities. The seed is produced and maintained in tight isolation by the institute that created the variety. On-demand, the seed is made available to other agencies in order to begin a seed multiplication chain at the institution, where breeder seed is created year after year. There is no certification agency for this variety of seeds. The original variety's vigor and viability must be preserved in the nucleus seed. After the production, the responsible breeder usually issues a pedigree certificate.

Breeder seed:

Breeder seed is the offspring of a nucleus seed that is typically replicated over a greater area of the field under the direction of a plant breeder and monitored by a breeder seed monitoring committee. The manufacturing of the foundation seeds ensures complete genetic and physical purity. The producing agency issues a golden yellow marking for this category. Representatives from state seed certification organizations, national or state seed firms, ICAR nominees, and the concerned breeder make up the monitoring committee. The breeder stage seed is the initial seed in the multiplication generation system. The breeder seed is the source of the first seed, as well as the subsequent rise in foundation seed production.

The breeder seed tag is 12X6 cm in size. For each bag of seeds, a single tag is usually supplied. Label number, crop, variety, seed class, lot number, date of the test, pure seed percent, inert matter percent, germination percent, and producing institution are all included on the label. Every year, the federal government must set the breeder seed price uniformly across the country.

Foundation seed:

The progeny of the breeder seed is the foundation seed, which is handled by recognized seed producing agencies in the public and private sectors under the supervision of the Seed Certification Agency in such a way that its quality is maintained in accordance with the prescribed seed standards. For the foundation seed class, seed certifying companies often use a white color tag. The foundation seed label is 15X7.5 cm in size. Under the technical and proper oversight of qualified plant breeders certified by the Government of India, foundation seed is produced by the State Farm Corporation of India, National Seed Corporation, and State Seed Corporation. Seeds for the foundation from seed growers that are interested.

The foundation seed has a genetic purity of 99.5 percent. This foundation seed, often known as mother seed, is the source of all other certified seed classes, either directly or through registered seed-producing firms.

Certified seed:

Certified seed is the offspring of foundation seed that is either grown by registered and certified seed producers under the supervision of the Seed Certification Agency to ensure that the quality of certified seed meets Indian Seed Certification Standards.

Seed certification agencies typically use an azure blue marking to identify certified seed classes. The certified seed tag is 15*7.5 cm in size. Genetic purity certifies that the seed is from the certified variety and contains no admixtures from other types of crops. The Certified seed has an extremely high genetic purity, with the amount of contamination allowed ranging from 0 to 0.1 percent. To achieve a successful crop, stand with certified seeds, a high percentage of germination is required.

It's usually okay as long as the reproduction doesn't go beyond three generations, excluding the breeder seed.

Truthfully labeled seeds:

Seeds are frequently unable to meet seed certification standards in government sectors for any one parameter. The opal green color of a correctly labeled seed tag. This seed can be marketed once it has been corrected and certified by an approved seed certifying body.

In the government sector, the price of truthfully labeled seed is always cheaper than the price of certified seed. The seed that has been rejected owing to genetic impurity or the existence of a disease that is unacceptable is not labeled as truthful.

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