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Land Measurement Units: Know about the commonly used units for Measurement of Land in India

Based on the State in the country, different terms are being utilized to indicate the area of landed property. For you to likely comprehend the proposal of a seller, the terms as referenced in the land records and documents, and to ascertain the value of the land, it is advised to have a proper idea with respect to the basic land measurement units utilized in India.

Chintu Das

Land measurement in India: Based on different states in the country, different terms are used to indicate the area of landed property. For you to likely comprehend the proposal of a seller, the terms as referenced in the land records and documents, and to ascertain the value of the land, it is advised to have a proper idea with respect to the basic land measurement units utilized in India.

A major portion of the most common land measurement units used in India include hectares, acres, square meters, and square yards (Gaj). In the north of India, the use of Bigha and Marla is fairly common. On the contrary, south India uses terms such as Cent, Guntha, and Ground. Contingent on the names of the units, their sizes likewise differ from State to State.

Plot vs Ground: 

Plot specifies a piece of land regardless of its size. On the other hand, Ground refers to a piece of land with a land area of 2,400 sq ft. Land documents generally provide the measurement units in square feet or ground. 

Here is a list of some of the commonly used land measurement units: 

Unit of Area 

Conversion Unit 

1 Square Feet (sq ft) 

144 sq in (1 feet is 12 inches) 

1 Square Centimeters 

0.00107639 sq ft 

1 Square Inch 

0.0069444 sq ft 

1 Square Kilometer (sq km) 

247.1 acres 

1 Square Meter (sq m) 

10.76391042 sq ft 

1 Square Mile 

640 acres or 259 hectares 

1 Square Yard (sq yd) 

9 sq ft 

1 Acre 

4840 sq yd or 100.04 cents (standard unit to measure land) 

1 Hectare 

10000 sq m or 2.49 acres approximately 

The basic difference between Hectare and Square Metre (Sq M): 

A square meter is characterized as the region that is encased by a square, with sides estimating 1 meter. One sq m is equivalent to 10.76 sq ft, and one acre of land is equivalent to 4,047 sq m. While private plots are commonly estimated in sq ft, farming area are estimated in acres. 

Then again, Hectare is utilized for a land deal, planning, and agribusiness. One hectare is equivalent to 10,000 sq m. 

How the property area is calculated: 

A piece of land is bifurcated into private plots subsequent to making the fundamental arrangement for streets, parks, schools, emergency clinics, markets, and different civilities. The number of plots and its size is derived from the design sketch or layout sketch. In the event of a resale property, you can discover the subtleties of the property that include its area as well in the Sale Deed. 

For residential or private property, the area or territory is generally represented using Square Feet (sq ft). Similarly, on account of agricultural or farming land, units like Acres or Hectares are used to denote the area. To quantify the land size, you have to multiply both the length and the width of the accessible land. 


North India: Land measurement units: 

Land measurement in North India is slightly different than the rest of the country. Here are the common measurement techniques used in lang Measurement in Northern India.


States used in 


1 Bigha-Pucca 

Bihar and parts of UP, Punjab, and Haryana 

3025 sq yd, 1 Pucca-Bigha=165 ft*165 ft 

1 Bigha 

Parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand 

968 sq yd 


Bigha- Kachha (Kachha Bigha is one-third of Pucca Bigha.) 


Some parts of Punjab, Haryana, UP 

1008.33 sq yd 

1 Biswa – Pucca 


Upper parts of UP, Punjab, Haryana 


151.25 sq yd 

1 Biswa 


Some parts of HP,  Uttarakhand 


48.4 sq yd 


1 Biswa  (Kaccha) (1/20 of Bigha Kaccha) 


Lower parts of Punjab, Haryana,  UP 


50.417 sq yd 


1 Biswansi 


UP, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand 

1/20 Biswa. 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis 


1 Killa 


Parts of Haryana and Punjab 

4840 sq yd (An Acre is also known as Killa) 


1 Ghumaon 


Some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab 

4840 sq yd 


1 Kanal 


Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir 


5445 sq ft. 8 Kanals is 1 Acre 


Land Measurement units in South India:

Here are the common ways the land is measured in South India.


States used in 


1 Ankanam 


Parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka 

72 sqft, 1Acre=605 Ankanams 

1 Cent 


Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka 

435.6 sq ft 


1 Ground 


Parts of Tamil Nadu 


2400 sq ft 


1 Guntha 


Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka   

1089 sq ft 


1 Kuncham 


Andhra Pradesh 

484 sq yd, 1 Kuncham=10 cents 


Note: Maharashtra people also often use the unit “Guntha” 

East India: Land measurement units: 


States used in 


1 Chatak 

West Bengal 

180 sq ft 

1 Decimal 

West Bengal 

48.4 sq yd, 1Acre=100 decimals 

1 Dhur 

Bihar and Jharkhand 

68.0625 sq ft 

1 Dhur 


3.6 sq ft 

1 Kattha 


2880 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Assam) has 5 Katthas 

1 Kattha 


720 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bengal) has 20 Katthas 

1 Kattha 


1361.25 sq ft, 1 Bigha (Bihar) has 20 Katthas 

1 Lecha 


144 sq ft, 20 Lechas is 1 Kattha 

 Note: Both Dhur and Kattha indicate various sizes, contingent on the State. While in Bihar, Dhur is more than 68 sq ft, it is just 3.6 sq ft in Tripura. Dhur is likewise often utilized in Jharkhand. Katha, then again, is utilized significantly in West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam. Likewise, it is utilized in specific pieces of Bihar. While the unit differs from State to State, it typically falls in the scope of 600-2,800 sq ft. 

West India: Land measurement units: 


States used in 


1 Bigha 

Bihar and parts of Rajasthan 

Pucca 3025 sq yd 

1 Bigha 

Gujarat and parts of Rajasthan 

1936 sq yd 

1 Biswa 

Upper parts of Rajasthan 

Pucca 151.25 sq yd 

1 Biswa 

Lower parts of Rajasthan 

96.8 sq yd 

1 Biswansi 


1/20 Biswa, 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis 


Central India: Land measurement units: 


States used in 


1 Bigha 

Parts of Madhya Pradesh 

1333.33 sq yd 

1 Kattha 

Madhya Pradesh 

600 sq ft, 1 Bigha (MP) has 20 Kathas 

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