l Make Sure your ANIMALS get these VITAMINS & MINERALS
Agripedia

Make Sure your ANIMALS get these VITAMINS & MINERALS

It is a well known fact that yield of milk can be almost doubled just by improving the feeding standards even without changing the breeds. So the importance of feeding and nutrition can not be ignored if we want to increase the productivity of our animals and birds. And for that a thorough knowledge about animal nutrition is essential.

Vitamins are organic compounds which are required in small  amounts for normal growth and maintenance of animal life. There are at least 15 vitamins which are identified as food components, but the following are considered essential for animal health.

Vitamin A

       Function

=Required for proper eye-sight.

= To maintain a proper condition of mucous lining inside the body and skin (mucous lining helps in maintaining body temperature and shock absorption).

Source

= Green leaves (they contain abundant supply of carotene, precursor of vitamin A).

= Well made silage and hay.

= Fats and oils from fish.

Deficiency symptoms

= Night blindness

= Roughened hair and scaly skin

= Loss of appetite

= Increased susceptibility to diseases

Vitamin B-Complex

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Functions: Proper utilization of carbohydrates

Source:

Yeast, germ cells of grain, beans, peas and green leafy vegetables. Generally the microorganism in the digestive tracts of the animals synthesize thiamine.

Deficiency symptoms

= Weakness of muscles and nerves.

= Loss of appetite.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Function: It is an important constituent of certain proteins and helps in carbohydrate metabolism as well.

Source: It occurs in all biological materials, it is synthesized by all green plants, yeasts, fungi and most bacteria.

Deficiency symptoms

= In pigs, it causes stunted growth, vomiting, skin eruptions and eye abnormalities.

= In chicks, it causes retarded growth and development of curled toe paralysis.

Nictonic acid or Niacin

Function: Hydrogen transfer in living cell.

Sources: Green and leafy fodder crops, concentrates and their by-products, peanut oil, meat, fish, animal by-products and milk of the animals.

Deficiency symptoms: In pigs, diarrhea, vomiting, dermatitis, loss of weight and anemia (loss of blood). In fowls, poor development of feathers, retarded growth and development of the body.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Function: Serves as a co-enzyme in a number of metabolic process such as absorption of amino acids.

Source: Green leaves, legume plants, concentrates and their by-products, milk, molasses, meat, fish, liver etc.

Deficiency symptoms:

In pigs, reduced appetite and anemia. In chicks, jerky movements and reduced hatchability of eggs. Generally in farm animals this deficiency does not occur since it is widely present in nature.

Pantothenic acid

Functions:

Helps in formation of red blood corpuscles (RBC) and provide disease resistance. It is present as co-enzyme in animal tissues.

Source: Wheat bran, rice bran, lucerne, groundnut meal, grains and their by-products, molasses, egg yolk, liver.

Deficiency symptoms: Causes retarded growth and diarrhea, loss of hair, scaliness of the skin and goose stepping gait. In chicks, reduction in hatchability occurs.

Folic acid

Function: Plays a role in various enzymic activities.

Source: Generally synthesized by intestinal growth.

Deficiency symptoms: Nutritional anemia and poor growth.

Biotin

Function: Plays an important role in fat synthesis.

Source: Green fodder, cereal grains, yeast, molasses, milk and liver.

Deficiency symptoms: Generally, deficiency of biotin does not occur in farm animals. But some common symptoms are retarded growth and development, falling of hair and dermatitis. For hens and rabbits, it needs to be supplemented with ration.

Choline

Function: Helps in fat synthesis.

Source: Natural fats, yeast, egg yolk and cereals.

Deficiency symptoms: The lack of this vitamin is usually seen during the later part of the gestation period in females characterized by anemia, weakness, retarded growth and development in poultry, poor development of feathers, depigmentation and anemia may occur.

Vitamin B12:

Function: It is required for the formation of DNA and RNA (genetic material).

Source: Liver, animal and fish by-products, eggs, milk. It is especially deficient in grain and fodder crops.

Deficiency symptoms: Chicks-Slow growth, poor feathering and poor hatchability of eggs.

Piglings-Retarded growth and develop in-coordination of hind legs. In older pigs dermatitis, rough coat, retarded growth and loss of reproduction are seen.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

Function: Required in various oxidation and reduction processes.

Source: Citrus fruits and green leafy vegetables. Farm animals can synthesize this vitamin.

Deficiency symptoms: Slow healing of wounds, skin infection, spongy hemorrhagic gums and loose teeth.

Vitamin D

Function: Required for bone and teeth development.

Source: (a) The main source is sunlight. It is synthesized by the action of ultra-violet rays of the sun on the skin of the animals.
(b) Fish oil, egg and butter, milk, sun dried grass.

Deficiency symptoms: Causes rickets in young animals and osteomalacia in adults. Retarded growth of foetus in pregnant animals, loss of egg production and hatchability among hens.

Vitamin E

Function: Required for proper development and functioning of reproductive organs.

Source: Green and leafy fodder crops, cereal grains, oil meals soybean and milk.

Deficiency symptoms

= White muscle disease in calves.

= Stiff-lamb disease in sheep.

 = Loss of reproduction and sterility in male cock.

= Low hatchability and crazy chick disease among chickens.

Vitamin K

Function: Required for blood clotting to prevent bleeding to death.

Source: Green and leafy fodder, soybean, liver, fish meal.

Deficiency symptoms: The main symptom of vitamin K deficiency in the body is characterized by lack of clotting of blood after haemorrhage.

Minerals

The minerals do not contain carbon and are, therefore, called inorganic elements. The proportionate amount of minerals in the animal body is as follows: 

Table : Proportionate amount of minerals in animal body

Sl.No.

Minerals

Per cent of body comp-osition

1

Calcium

1.33

2

Phosphorus

0.74

3

Potassium

0.19

4

Sodium

0.16

5

Sulphur

0.15

6

Chlorine

0.11

7

Magnesium

0.04

 

The approximate requirement of various elements is given in table.

 

Table : Requirements of various elements in animal body 

Sl.No.

Elements

Approximate amount  g/kg body weight

1

Calcium

 5.0

2

Phosphorus

10.0

3

Potassium

2.0

4

Sodium

1.6

5

Chlorine

1.1

6

Sulphur

1.5

7

Magnesium

0.4

8

Iron

0.02-0.08

9

Zinc

0.01-0.05

10

Copper

0.001-0.005

11

Molybdenum

0.091-0.004

12

Iodine

0.0003-0.0006

13

Manganese

0.0002-0.0005

14

Cobalt

0.00002-0.00001

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