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Potato Cultivation: Guidance For Beginners

Sangeeta Soni
Sangeeta Soni
Patato Farming
Potatoes In The Field

The potato, which originated in South America, is today grown all over the world. It is a member of the nightshade family, Solanaceae, and is the world's most significant food crop. Potatoes are high in vitamins and minerals. According to the 2018 data, potato production was 368 million tonnes. Raw potatoes contain a lot of water and starch.

Seed potatoes and tubers are used to grow potatoes. Potatoes are used in a variety of cuisines, chips, and for industrial purposes such as the manufacturing of starch and alcohol.

Moving on to potato cultivation, all the requirements and how to boost production for a doubled earning. Continue reading to the end to get all of the facts.

Soil and Climatic Conditions Required:

Potatoes can be cultivated in a variety of soil types, including loamy soil, sandy loam, silt loam, and clay soil. Soil should be loose in order to provide less resistance to tuber enlargement. The soil must be fertile and well-drained. Potato cultivation requires acidic soil with a pH range of 4.8 to 5.4. The potato is classified as a cool-weather crop.

Potato vegetative growth is best at temperatures of 24 degrees Celsius, and tuber growth is best at temperatures of 20 degrees Celsius.

How to Prepare Land?

The bed should be prepared by ploughing the land to a depth of 20-25 cm and then harrowing it. Before seeding, make sure the soil has enough moisture.

Sowing Technique?

Potato is propagated by tubers. Tubers are thick underground stems also called stolon.

Sowing time and Seed Selection

Potatoes are grown in the Rabi season between October and November, when the highest and minimum temperatures are 30 Degree Celsius and 20 degrees Celsius, respectively. The seeds/tubers used should be medium in size (20-125 g weight) and bought from a reputable source.

Seed Treatment

Potato seed/tuber must be kept in a cool, shady place for one to two weeks after being removed from cold storage to allow sprouts to emerge. Tubers can be treated with Gibberellic acid 1g/lit of water and then dried in a shady place before being kept in an aerated chamber for 10 days to achieve uniform sprouts. To prevent tuber rotting, soak tubers in a 0.5 percent Mancozeb solution for 10 minutes.

Spacing between the tubers

The planting distance preferred for potato crop should be 50*20 cm and 60*25 cm. And seed rate of 1.40 kg for 10 metre square of area.

Manure and Fertilizer Requirement:

Apply 250-400 g/ha Farm Yard Manure and for fulfilling nutrients requirement, 120-160 kg/ha Nitrogen, 80-120 kg/ha Phosphorus and 80-120 kg/ha Potassium. All these should be applied to the soil 2-3 weeks before plantation. At the time of sowing, apply 3/4th dose of Nitrogen, and a full dose of Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizer. Remaining, 1/4th dose of Nitrogen fertilizer at the time of earthing up operation, after 30-40 days of sowing.

Earthing up operation is performed for proper aeration, temperature, and moisture maintenance in the soil. In this, the soil is drawn up around the base of the plant for proper tuber formation; it is done when the plant attains a height of 15-20 cm. The second earthing operation can be performed two weeks after the first one if required.

Irrigation Requirement:

Potato crops require frequent irrigation, depending on soil moisture. Pre-sowing irrigation, irrigation after 3-4 days of sowing, and rest mild irrigations total 5-6 irrigations. Irrigation must be turned off 10-12 days prior to harvesting.

How to Protect the Plant?

Potato crops can be attacked by various pests and diseases, so proper measures should be taken and pesticides should be incorporated.

Pests

  1. Aphid- They cause curling and deformation of young leaves. Cut the foliage according region timing. And spray Actara 25WG600g/ha.

  2. Leaf eating caterpillars- They feed on potato leaves and damage them. Spray Profenofos @ 2ml.

  3. Cut Worms- They cut sprout at ground level and damages the crop. Spray Tracer 48 SC 200 ml/ha.

  4. Potato tuber moth- This is the most common pest in both the field and the storage. To protect the crop from this, use only healthy seeds and well-decomposed cow manure. It is a very effective approach to cover the soil with a 2-inch layer of sand.

  5. White grub- They cause crop damage by feeding on the root, stem, and tuber. Collect larvae while tilling soil, planting, and weeding to manage this pest. Also, deploy bird predators to minimize the population of white grubs.

Diseases

  1. Early blight- Necrotic spots are observed on lower leaves. Spray Chlorothalonil fungicide.

  2. Late blight- Observed on the lower part of leaves and tip. Spray Chlorothalonil fungicide.

  3. Black scurf- Tubers with black scurf. Affected plants wither and die. Seed treatment with mercury is required to defend against this. Also, implement crop rotation and avoid monoculture. Brassicol should be applied to the soil.

  4. Common Scab- This disease spread rapidly in low moisture conditions. To protect crops from this, avoid deep planting of tubers, follow crop rotation.

Now comes the most important point that how to increase the yield and double your earning…

How to Increase the Yield and Double your Earning?

There are many factors on which potato yield depends; here are some easy ways to increase your potato yield.

  1. Keep the number of tubers per unit area as low as possible, and choose tubers of increased size and even weight.

  2. Use only certified seeds instead of deteriorated seeds acquired from local marketplaces.

  3. You can avoid worrying about seed quality by storing your own collected tubers for the following planter.

  4. Plant the tubers in a seed plot before transplanting them on the farm.

  5. Growing potatoes in raised beds is another simple and efficient approach.

  6. Planting in straw, wire cylinders, or upside-down can all diminish yield, therefore avoid these procedures.

Harvesting

When the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall to the ground, the crop is ready to harvest. Potatoes are laid on the ground and allowed to dry in the shade after harvesting. The typical yield of a potato crop ranges between 20 and 30 tonnes per hectare.

Potatoes should be stored in cold storage at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 6°C and relative humidity levels of 80 percent.

This is all about potato farming. For more information like this, Stay Connected…!!

Happy Farming…!!

(Also read: Carrot Cultivation)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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