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Rashtriya Gokul Mission : Explained

Dr. Sangeeta Soi
Dr. Sangeeta Soi

Rashtriya Gokul Mission was launched in December 2014 for the development and conservation of indigenous bovine breeds for enhancing milk production and productivity through  the introduction of higher genetic merit bulls for semen production, field performance recording, strengthening of bulls mother farms, setting up of Gokul Grams etc.

Potential to enhance the productivity of the indigenous breeds of India through professional farm management and superior nutrition is immense, for this it is essential to promote conservation and development of indigenous breeds. The “Rashtriya Gokul Mission” aims to conserve and develop indigenous breeds in a focused and scientific manner.

Rashtriya Gokul Mission is a focused project under National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development, with an outlay of Rs 500 crore during the 12th Five Year Plan. During 2014-15 Rs 15000 crores will be allocated for development, preservation and conservation of indigenous breeds. 

Ministry/Department : Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

 Aim is conservation and development of indigenous breeds in a focused and scientific manner.


More about the Scheme:

  • It is a project under National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development.
  • The objectives of this mission includes Conservation of indigenous breeds and their development to improve their genetic makeup, enhancing the milk productivity and distribution of disease free high genetic merit bulls for natural service.
  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission is being implemented through “State Implementing Agencies (SIA) viz Livestock Development Boards.
  • Scheme is implemented on 100% grant-in-aid basis and throughout the country.
  • It includes:
    • Establishment of Integrated Indigenous cattle centres “Gokul Gram”.
    • Establishment of Breeder’s societies “Gopalan Sangh”.
    • Award to Farmers “Gopal Ratna” and Breeders’ societies “Kamadhenu”.
    • Assistance to institution which are repositories of best germplasm.

Importance of indigenous breeds: 

During 2012-2013, about 45 million cattle contributed around 59 million tonnes of milk. Cattle not only contribute substantially to milk production but are also used as draught animals for agricultural operations and transport in rural areas. Most of the agricultural operations by small farmers are performed by bullocks.

Indigenous cattle are categorized as Zebu and are suited for draught power because of the presence of a hump. Indigenous cattle are well known for their quality of heat tolerance and ability to withstand extreme climatic conditions.1Studies of impact of Climate Change and effect of temperature rise on milk production of dairy animals indicate that temperature rise due to global warming will negatively impact milk production. The annual loss in milk production of cattle and buffaloes due to thermal stress in 2020 will be about 3.2 million tonnes of milk costing more than Rs 5000 Crore at current price rates1 . The decline in milk production and reproductive efficiency will be highest in crossbred cattle followed by buffaloes. Indigenous Breeds will be least affected by climate change as they are more hardy and robuste

  • Need for Protection and Conservation of Indigenous Breeds:

Indigenous animals playing crucial role in the national economy through supply of draught animal power, milk, cow dung (organic manure) and cow urine (medicinal value). Crossbreds are more productive but their tendency to wilt under Indian conditions of low input and harsh climate, susceptibility to tropical diseases warrants the conservation and development of indigenous breeds.

Some of the indigenous breeds have enormous potential to become high yielding commercial milch animals under optimal farm management. The pre-requisites for the development of a breed are: a) the presence of a minimum base population and b)a wide selection differential for economic traits.

Implementations and Outlay

Scheme is proposed to be implemented on 100% grant-in-aid basis with an amount of Rs 500 crore during the 12th Five Year Plan for implementation of mission namely „Rashtriya Gokul MIssion‟. Mission was implemented with an allocation of Rs 150.00 Crores during 2014-15.

Implementing Agency: 

Mission will be implemented through the “State Implementing Agency (SIA viz Livestock Development Boards). State Gauseva Ayogs will be given the mandate to sponsor proposals to the SIA‟s (LDB‟s) and monitor implementation of the sponsored proposal. All Agencies having a role in indigenous cattle development will be the “Participating Agencies” like CFSPTI, CCBFs, ICAR, Universities, Colleges, NGO‟s and Gaushalas with best germplasm .

Components of the Scheme:

  1. a) Establishment of Village level Integrated Indigenous Cattle Centres viz “GokulGram”:

      i)in the breeding tracts and
     ii). near metropolitan cities for housing the urban cattle. 

    b) Strengthening of bull mother farms to conserve high genetic merit Indigenous Breeds. 
    c) Establishment of Field Performance Recording (FPR) in the breeding tract. 
    d) Assistance to Institutions/Institutes which are repositories of best germplasm. 
    e) Implementation of Pedigree Selection Programme for the Indigenous Breeds with large population. 
    f) “Gopalan Sangh”: Establishment of Breeder‟s Societies: Gopalan Sangh. g) Distribution of disease free high genetic merit bulls for natural service. 
    h) Incentive to farmers maintaining elite animals of indigenous breeds.
    i) Heifer rearing programme.
    j) Award to Farmers (“Gopal Ratna” ) and Breeders‟ Societies ( “Kamadhenu” ) 
    k) Organization of Milk Yield Competitions for indigenous breeds. 
    l) Organization of Training Programme for technical and non technical

Gokul Gram: 

Under this component it is proposed to establish Integrated Indigenous Cattle Centres or Gokul Grams in the breeding tracts of indigenous breeds. Gokul Grams will be established in:

i). the native breeding tracts and 
ii). near metropolitan cities for housing the urban cattle.

Gokul Gram will act as Centres for development of Indigenous Breeds and a dependable source for supply of high genetic breeding stock to the farmers in the breeding tract. The Gokul Gram will be self sustaining and will generate economic resources from sale of A2 milk, organic manure, vermi-composting, urine distillates, and production of electricity from bio gas for in house consumption and sale of animal products. The Gokul Gram will also function as state of the art in situ training centre for Farmers, Breeders and MAITRI’s. 

Each Gokul Gram will be set up by the EIA and function under the auspices of the SIA/ EIA or in a PPP mode. The Gokul Gram will maintain milch and unproductive animals in the ratio of 60:40 and will have the capacity to maintain about 1000 animals. Nutritional requirements of the animals will be provided in the Gokul Gram through in house fodder production. Disease free status of Gokul Gram will be maintained through regular screening of animals for important diseases like brucellosis, TB and JD. An inbuilt dispensary and AI centre will be an integral part of the Gokul Gram. Gokul Gram will also be set up near to metropolitan cities for managing urban cattle. Metropolitan Gokul Gram will focus on genetic upgradation of urban cattle. 

Cattle rearing has been a traditional livelihood in India and is closely linked to agricultural economy. India with 199 million cattle has 14.5% of the world cattle population. Of this, 83% i.e. 166 million are indigenous. Most of the indigenous cattle (about 80%) are non- descript and only 20% belong to breeds recognised by National Bureau of Genetic Resources. The cattle genetic resource of India is represented by 37 well recognized indigenous breeds and there are 13 recognised buffalo breeds. Indigenous cattle, in India, are robust and resilient and are particularly suited to the climate and environment of their respective breeding tracts. They are endowed with qualities of heat tolerance, resistance to diseases and the ability to thrive under extreme climatic stress and less than optimal nutrition. 

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