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Tomato Farming: Key Strategies for Optimal Results

Tomato Farming is a Profitable Business. Here we explain the best practices and techniques for maximizing tomato yields.

Shreetu Singh
Image Source: Pexels
Image Source: Pexels

Tomatoes, rich in lycopene, offer numerous health benefits. They promote skin radiance, support heart health, and aid in cancer prevention due to their antioxidants. Adding tomatoes to your diet enhances flavor and overall well-being, promoting vitality and longevity. India is the world's second-largest tomato producer, yielding 21,181,000 tonnes. The major tomato-producing states are Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam.

Nutritional Benefits

Tomatoes are a nutritional powerhouse, boasting an array of health benefits. With a mere 20 kcal per 100g, they are low in calories yet packed with essential nutrients. Tomatoes contain 0.8 g of protein and 0.2 g of fat per 100g, providing a source of energy. Their high fiber content, at 0.8 g per 100g, aids in digestion and promotes satiety. Additionally, tomatoes are rich in vitamins and minerals, including Vitamin A (351 µg/100g), Vitamin B1 (0.12 mg/100g), Vitamin B2 (0.06 mg/100g), Vitamin B3 (0.4 mg/100g), Vitamin C (27 mg/100g), iron (0.64 mg/100g), calcium (48 mg/100g), and phosphorus (20 mg/100g). Incorporating tomatoes into your diet supports overall health, providing essential nutrients and antioxidants for vitality and well-being.


Tomatoes thrive with flexible planting methods and timings. They can be transplanted onto raised beds or using ridge and furrow techniques. Planting times vary from mid-December in sub-tropical regions to March-April in temperate areas, with intermediate options in between. The spacing ranges from 60 x 30-45 cm to 75 x 75 cm, depending on the variety. For nursery planting, seed rates are 400-500 g/ha for varieties and 125-175 g/ha for hybrids. These adaptable practices ensure successful tomato cultivation across diverse environments.

Field Preparation and Irrigation

Tomato cultivation begins with one or two plowing sessions, followed by harrowing. Raised beds or ridges and furrows are then prepared after secondary tillage. This method ensures proper soil preparation for optimal tomato growth. The crop relies on furrow and drip irrigation techniques, tailored to seasonal needs. In summer, irrigation occurs every 3-4 days, while in winter, it is spaced out to 10-12 days. Crucial stages like flowering and fruiting receive priority irrigation, ensuring plants receive essential moisture for optimal growth and yield

For thriving tomato crops, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are applied at rates of 100-125 kg/ha, 50-60 kg/ha, and 50-60 kg/ha, respectively. Adding farmyard manure at 15-20 t/ha enriches the soil, ensuring optimal nutrient availability for healthy growth and abundant yields.

For weed control in tomato fields, pre-emergent herbicides like Alachlor at 2.0 lit/ha or Metribuzin at 0.5 kg/ha are applied. Two hoeings are then performed, the first and third fortnights after transplanting, to further manage weed growth and ensure optimal conditions for tomato plants.

Top Varieties

  1. Arka Abhed

This high-yielding F1 hybrid tomato variety boasts multiple disease resistance, including resistance to Tomato Leaf Curl Virus (ToLCV), bacterial wilt, early blight, and late blight (Ph2 + Ph3). The plants are semi-determinate with dark green foliage, and the fruits are firm, oblate round, and medium-large, weighing between 90-100g each. This variety is suitable for cultivation during summer, kharif, and rabi seasons. Specifically bred for the fresh market, it delivers impressive yields of 700-750 q/ha within a growth period of 140-150 days. 

  1. Arka Rakshak

This high-yielding F1 hybrid tomato variety is characterized by triple disease resistance, offering protection against Tomato Leaf Curl Virus (ToLCV), bacterial wilt (BW), and early blight. The fruits are square-round, large-sized (weighing between 90-100g), and boast a deep red color with a firm texture. This variety is well-suited for both fresh market consumption and processing purposes. With its impressive yield potential, reaching 750-800 q/ha, this hybrid matures within a growth period of 140 days.

  1. Arka Ananya

This F1 hybrid tomato variety is the result of a cross between TLBR-6 and IIHR-2202. It produces medium-sized fruits weighing between 65-70g, characterized by their firm texture and deep red coloration. Notably, this hybrid offers combined resistance to Tomato Leaf Curl Virus (ToLCV) and bacterial wilt, making it a resilient choice for cultivation. Ideal for the fresh market, it promises consistent yields, with an average production of 65-70 t/ha.

  1. Kashi Abhiman

Kashi Abhiman, a determinate tomato hybrid, was recommended at the 30th AICRP (VC) meeting at Pantnagar, UP. Ideal for Zones I and IV (J&K, HP, Uttaranchal, Punjab, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand) from mid-September to March. Recorded high yields of 870 q/ha and 930 q/ha at HARP, Ranchi, and CITH, Srinagar, respectively. Deep red, uniformly mature fruits with firm texture (pericarp thickness: 0.6cm) suitable for long-distance transportation.

  1. Kashi Adarsh

This tomato variety features round, very firm fruits with a pericarp thickness of 6 mm, weighing between 80-115 g and exhibiting an attractive red color. With a yield potential of 60 tonnes/ha, it is resistant to tomato leaf curl virus disease, carrying the Ty-3 gene allele. Recommended for cultivation in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra due to its high level of resistance and promising characteristics. 

Plant Protection

In tomato cultivation, effective management of pests and diseases is essential for maximizing yields. Gram pod borer, a common pest, can be controlled by spraying either indoxacarb 14.5% SC at a rate of 400-500 ml/ha or flubendiamide 20% WG at 100 g/ha. Nematodes, another threat, can be managed by applying dazomet at a rate of 30-40 g/ha in the nursery. Serpentine leaf miner outbreaks can be addressed using Dimethoate 30 EC (0.05%), Chlorpyrifos 20 EC (0.05%), or Fipronil 0.3G (75 gm/hectare). Damping off, the fungal disease can be prevented by seed treatment with captan 75% WS at 20-30 g/kg seed or soil drench with captan 75% WP at 1 kg in 1000 liters of water/ha in the nursery. Early blight, caused by fungi, can be managed by spraying mancozeb 35% SC at 500 ml/ha, mancozeb 75% WG at 1 kg/ha, or pyraclostrobin 20% WG at 450-500 g in 500 liters of water/ha. Bacterial wilt, bacterial leaf spot, Fusarium wilt, and leaf curl can be controlled through various measures, including crop rotation, irrigation management, and seed treatments. These management practices, with all figures included, are crucial for protecting tomato crops and ensuring high yields. 


Tomatoes are harvested at different stages based on their destination. For distant markets, they are picked green when fully developed but still green. Local markets prefer them pink, showing partial ripening. For home use, ripe tomatoes have a red hue and begin to soften. Fully ripe tomatoes, with maximum color and softness, are ideal for processing. Yields range from 20-25 t/ha for varieties and 50-60 t/ha for hybrids, meeting diverse market demands.

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