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Growing of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) in an Inceptisol of Alluvial Soil

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Grain legumes are a type of pulse. One of the most significant Kharif pulse crops is green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], also known as Mung bean or Golden gram. The word "pulse" is derived from the Latin word "puls," which means "pottage," and refers to a seed that has been heated into porridge or a thick soup. 

India is the world's top producer and consumer of pulses. Green gram is one of India's most significant pulse crops, ranking third behind chickpea and pigeon pea.

Pulses include grains and legumes. Green gramme [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], commonly known as Mung bean or Golden gram, is one of the most important Kharif pulse crops. The word "pulse" comes from the Latin word "puls," which means "pottage," and refers to seed cooked into porridge or a thick soup. India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. Green gram is the third most important pulse crop in India, behind chickpea and pigeon pea.

Mung beans are often grown as a green manure crop. As a leguminous crop, it has the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. It also aids in soil erosion prevention. Because it has a short growing season, it works well in many intensive crop rotations. Moong can be used as a cow feed. Green plants are uprooted or cut from ground level after the pods are harvested, sliced into small pieces, and fed to the cattle. The seed husks can be used as cattle fodder after being soaked in water. Green gram accounts for 14% of total pulses area and 7% of total pulses production in India.

ORIGIN AND HISTORY

Green gram (moong) has been grown in India since the beginning of time. Although there are numerous variants in various sections of the country, this plant is unknown in its natural state. Vigna radiata var. sublobata, which grows wild in India and Indonesia and maybe the origin of moong, is the closest relative. Moong is a native of India and Central Asia, according to Vavilov (1926).    

AREA AND DISTRIBUTION

In India, Burma, Ceylon, Pakistan, China, Fiji East, Queensland, and Africa, mung bean is grown. Moong is grown in practically every state in India. As of September 27, 2019, Indian farmers had planted 134.02 lakh hectares of kharif pulses, compared to 136.40 lakh ha the previous year. Green gram was planted on 31.15 lakh ha this year, compared to 34.24 lakh ha last year. Pulses are farmed on a 29.36hectare farm, according to reports area in India, with production and productivity of 24.51 mt and 835 kg per hectare. The important mung bean growing states are Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Bihar.

CLASSIFICATION

In 1932, Bose classified mung beans in India into 40 different varieties, based on leaf size, bloom colour, pod colour, and seed colour. 2n =24 chromosomes are found in all types. It possesses the following distinguishing features. Seed colour — Seeds are either green, black brown or yellow.

Seed surface —Either dull or shining.

Rower colour — Either light yellowish-olive or olive yellow.

Pod colour —   Ripe pods are either iron grey, olive grey or snuff brown.

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

Green gram (moong) is a member of the Leguminosae family and subfamily Papilionaceae. It's a little herbaceous annual plant that grows 30 to 100 centimetres tall, with a minor inclination to twine in the top branches. The primary stems are mostly upright, with semierect side branches. The leaves are trifoliate with long petioles, with big, oval, and whole leaflets. Short hairs cover the stems and leaves, which are often shorter than those on urd. The blooms come in a cluster of 10 to 20 in axillary racemes of long pedicels and are varying hues of yellow. The pods are spherical, thin, and have a short pubescene and are 6 to 10 centimetres long. The seeds are tiny and globular in shape. The hilum is white and more or less flat, and the seed is normally green, however yellow-brown or purple-brown seeds can also be found. Cotyledons are yellow in color. Seed germination is epigeal in nature. The crop is fully self-fertile and self-pollinated.

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS:

Green gramme (Moong) thrives in climates with annual rainfall of 60 to 76 centimetres. Moong is regarded as the most hardy of all pulse crops. It prefers a hot climate and can withstand drought to a degree. It may be grown everywhere from sea level to 2000 metres above sea level. In northern India, it is grown throughout the Kharif and summer seasons, although it is also grown during the Rabi season in the south and south west.

SOIL:

Moong is a crop that may be produced on a range of soils, including red-laterite soils in south India, black cotton soils in Madhya Pradesh, and sandy soils in Rajasthan. Moong cultivation requires a well-drained loamy to sandy loam soil. Moong cultivation is not possible in saline or alkaline soils.

VARIETIES: Several enhanced mung bean types have been developed for cultivation in various states. Recommended varieties of mung bean. Pusa-9072, Pant M-1, Narendra M-1, Varsha, MUM-2, RMG-62, Asha, Pusa Vishal, SML-32 etc.

CROPPING SYSTEMS:

During the Kharif season, moong is planted alongside pigeon pea, sorgham, pearl millet, maize, and cotton. Sugarcane sown in the spring can be intercropped with moong. Without affecting the performance of the main crop sugarcane, an additional grain yield of 5-6 quintals per hectare can be acquired. Sugarcane is planted at 90-centimetre intervals between rows. With a seed rate of 7-8 kg per hectare, two rows of moong (Pant Moong-1) are sown 30 centimetres apart in the centre of sugarcane rows, leaving 30 centimetres between cane and moong rows. The primary mung bean planting systems in northern given. Maize—wheat—green gram. Potato—wheat—green gram, Green gram—wheat, Green gram—potato

FIELD PREPARATION:

Two or three cross harrowings and planking are used to prepare the field. The field should be level and devoid of weeds. Give a pre-irrigation to the summer crop right after the Raby crop is harvested. When the field is ready, prepare it by ploughing it twice or three times with a local plough or harrowing. Planking should be done after each ploughing/harrowing to level the field and reduce moisture loss through evaporation from the soil surface.

SEED AND SOWING

Time of Sowing

(a) Kharif: Sowing begins in the second fortnight of June and continues through the first fortnight of July during the Kharif season.

(b) Rabi: Moong is sown in Rabi season in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Orissa in central and southern India. Should be planted between October and November.

(c) Summer: Moong is grown in irrigated circumstances in the summer in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Bihar, and West Bengal. After the harvest of sugarcane, wheat, potato, and other crops, it is seeded. Sowing takes place between mid-March and mid-April.

Seed Rate and Spacing

During the Kharif season, 12-15 kg seed per hectare should be put in 45 cm rows, whereas during the Rabi and summer seasons, 20 kg seed per hectare should be sown in 30 cm rows. Sowing can be done using a seed drill or behind the local plough. Thiram or Carbendazim (Bavistin) at a dose of 2.5 g per kilogramme of seed should be applied before sowing. If the crop is being planted for the first time or after a lengthy period of time, it is also recommended to treat the seed with an appropriate Rhizobium culture.

MANURES AND FERTILISERS:

Mung beans are commonly produced in soil with low fertility. 8-10 tonnes of compost or farm yard manure should be applied before 15 days of sowing if available. Apply 15-20 kilogramme of organic manure and 40 to 50 kg of PO per hectare if organic manure is not available at the time of sowing. Drill 100 kg of diammonium phosphate if available to meet the nitrogen and phosphorus requirements. The fertiliser should be drilled into the seed either at the time of sowing or just before sowing, so that it is 5-7 centimetres below the seed.

WATER MANAGEMENT

Irrigation is not required for rainy-season crops, although drainage is essential. Because this crop is vulnerable to water logging, there should be appropriate drainage in the field. Five to six irrigations may be given to Rabi and summer crops. When the soil appears to be dry, the area should be irrigated. In comparison to the Kharif crop, more irrigation is required during the summer because to the high temperature and low relative humidity. Around 20-25 days following seeding, the initial irrigation should be administered. The future irrigations should be spaced out 12-15 days apart. When the crop is in full flower, there should be no irrigation.

HARVESTING AND THRESHING:

Pod shattering is a major issue with pulse. As a result, picking should begin as soon as the pods reach maturity. Harvesting should take two to three pickings to finish. Only two pickings are required for synchronous kinds, and the entire crop can occasionally be harvested with a sickle. After thorough drying, the pods or entire crop should be manually threshed.

YIELD: A properly managed crop can yield 12 to 15 quintals per hectare.

Authors

Udiyata Kumari1, Uttam Kumar2, Amreen Hasan3, Tarence Thomas4)

*Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj-211008 (UP), India.

*udiyatachoudhary12@gmail.com

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