Role of Artificial Intelligence & Integrated Pest Management in Rice Crop

Pest in Rice Crop
Pest in Rice Crop

Artificial Intelligence training requires technical and educational investments in the agricultural sector. Knowledge of farmer regarding field needs to be translated to AI training. Crop pests can be detected and classified based on Faster R-CNN and cloud computing system. Five classes of well-known crop pests are successfully classified using the developed image-based recognition system. The evaluation results of insect pest classification using the proposed Faster R-CNN showed superior performance compared to BP neural networks and SSD Mobile Net.

The main prospect of using artificial intelligence is adding new agricultural pest classes with recommended pesticides for specific crops. Computer vision is the latest way farmers can adopt new technology to meet the global food demands by managing insect pests through artificial intelligence techniques and hence contribute to the increase in food security. Many mobile apps based on artificial intelligence have been developed by different research institutes scientists for different crops to identify and manage the insect pest of crop efficiently.

Computer vision is good at spotting disorders in agriculture, but it can also help with preventing them. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVS) equipped with computer vision AI make it possible to automate spraying of pesticides uniformly across a field. With real-time recognition of target spraying areas, UAV sprayers are able to operate with high precision both in terms of the area and amount to be sprayed. This significantly reduces the risk of contaminating crops, humans, animals, and water resources and help in insect pest management efficiently.

Rice, the staple diet of over half of the world's population, is grown on over 145 million ha in more than 110 countries, and occupies almost one-fifth of the total world crop land under cereals. Rice crop is being attacked by nearly 800 species of insects worldwide in which some causes serious losses in all over the India.

Stem Borers

The stem borers, generally considered the most serious pests of rice worldwide, occur and infest plants from seedling stage to maturity. The rice stem borers consist primarily of insects in the Lepidopterous families, Noctuidae, Crambidae and Pyralidae. The adult moths lay eggs on rice leaves and the larvae bore into the stem. Feeding in the stem during the vegetative growth stage of the plant (seedling to stem elongation) causes death of the central shoot "dead-heart". Damaged shoots do not produce a panicle, and thus, produce no grain. Feeding of stem borers during the reproductive stage (panicle initiation to milk grain) causes a severing of the developing panicle at its base. As a result, the panicle is unfilled and whitish in color, rather than filled with grain and brownish in color. Such empty panicles are called "whiteheads". Yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas a serious pest of rice throughout India and South East Asia but in the southern USA the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus are common stem borers attacking rice.

Leafhoppers and Plant hoppers

The leafhoppers and plant hoppers (order Hemiptera) are sucking insects that remove plant sap from the xylem and phloem tissues of the plant. In general, the leafhoppers (family Cicadellidae) attack all aerial parts of the plant whereas the plant hoppers (family Delphacidae) attack the basal portions (stems). Severely damaged plants dry and take on the brownish appearance of plants that are similar to damage by fire. Hence, hopper damage is called "hopper burn". These insects are severe pests in Asia, where they not only cause direct damage, by removing plant sap, but are also vectors of serious rice virus diseases, such as rice tungro virus transmitted by the green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens, and grassy stunt virus transmitted by the brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

Grain Sucking Insect

The gundhi bugs (order Hemiptera), presence in rice field is detected by foul odor produced by the scent glands on their abdomen, penetrate the developing grain with their sucking mouthparts and empty the white fluid referred to as "milk". When Damage occurs early in the development of the grain, grains are not completely filled. However, later attack results in "pecky rice" which is referred to as the condition of the grain after being sucked by stink bugs and the grain being subsequently stained by the bacteria or fungi which enter the puncture wounds. The stink bug, Leptocorisa acuta and L. oratorious found in all over India and are a pest of rice.

leaf feeders
leaf feeders

Defoliators and leaf feeders

Majority of insects belonging to several insect orders feed on rice leaves. Most common are the larvae of the order Lepidoptera such as leaf folders which folds the leaves marginally and scrap its chlorophyll content and case worm in which cut leaf bits floating in water Army worms also cuts the ear head’s and field looks likes as grazed by animals and grasshoppers (order Orthoptera) also defoliate the plants, the gall midge a dipteran pest which maggots enter into growing shoot and lacerate the leaf tissues and cause silver shoot or onion leaf formation and some coleopteran larvae and adults also feeds on the leaves. Defoliation reduces the photosynthetic capacity of the rice plant and thereby decreases yields. However, when feeding damage occurs early in rice growth, plants have an ability to compensate for damage by producing new tillers. Thus, rice plants in the actively tillering stage of growth can tolerate a certain level of leaf damage without any yield loss.

Root Feeders

In rice field root feeders are termites (Order Isoptera) and the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (order Coleoptera). Termites, in upland rice fields, occur in patches and often kill the plants, especially when rainfall is lacking. The water weevil has restricted distribution in India. The adult water weevil feeds on the leaves and causes little damage while the larvae feed on the roots and severely reduce the root system. Plants with reduced root systems grow poorly and have low yields.

IPM in rice

Integration of various techniques and methods are followed to manage insect pests which are ecologically safe, socially acceptable and economically viable are practiced to combat the pest population in accordance to various situations, these practices are normal cultural practices, through some biological agents, through some physical or mechanical forces or through application of chemicals.

Techniques followed to manage rice stem borers and leaf folders:

  • Harvesting of previous rice crop from ground level helps in reducing the chances of stem borer build up.

  • Installation of pheromone traps @ 5/ha for the monitoring of yellow stem borer.

  • Clipping of rice tip seedling before transplanting is done to eliminate egg masses.

  • Root dipping of seedling in 0.02% effective against early attack of borers and gall midge.

  • Release of egg parasitoids, Trichogramma japonicum @ 50,000/ha at weekly interval

  • Spraying neem seed kernel extract controls stem borer.

  • Chlorantraniliprole(Ferterra) 0.4 GR @ 10kg/ha mixed with 15 kg urea or sand and broadcast in field after 15-30 days after transplanting care should be taken sufficient amount of water should be maintained during application and till 7 days of application

  • The other effective treatments are chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 150 ml/ha fipronil 0.3 % GR @ 20 kg/ha, cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 20 kg/ha, lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC @ 500 ml/ha, indoxacarb 5 SC @ 500 ml/ha carbofuran granules @ 40 kg/ha or phorate 12.5 kg/ha

  • Release of egg parasitoidsTrichogramma chilonis @ 100,000/ha at weekly interval to control leaf folder

  • Release of larval parasitoids, Platygaster oryzae against gall midge

Techniques followed to manage BPH

  • Grow tolerant or resistant variety for specific insects depending upon types of insect prevalence

  • Alternate wetting and drying the fields to create unfavourable conditions for BPH buildup.

  • Proper spacing between rows and plants for better penetration of sunlight and aeration provide 25 cm alleys at interval of each 2 mts against BPH.

  • Always use recommended dose of nitrogen and potassic fertilizers against BPH.

  • These above practices also takes care of green leaf hopper in rice ecosystem also use carbofuran or phorate against this insect.

  • Release of Cyrtorhinus lividipennnis @ 50-75 eggs per square meter at 10 days interval and 3 predatory spiders, Lycosa psedoannulata per hill against brown plant hopper.

  • Buprofezin 25 SC 1000ml, Imidacloprid 17.8 SL 150 ml, Acetamiprid 20 SP 100 gm, Thiamethoxam 25 WG 100gm, carbaryl 50 WP 1.5 kg/ha.

 Management of gundhi bugs

  • Remove weeds from fields and surrounding areas

  • Small wasps parasitize the eggs and the meadow grasshoppers prey on them.

  • Both the adults and nymphs are preys to spiders, coccinellid beetles and dragonflies

  • Look for rice bugs at pre flowering stage and continue daily until the hard dough stage during early morning or late afternoon hours.

  • ETL : 1 nymph /adult per hill (DRR)

  • 10 rice bugs /20 hills (IRRI). Malathion or carbaryl dust 5% @ 30kg/ha, Carbaryl 50 WP @ 1.5 kg/ha or malathion 50EC @ 2ml/l (850ml/ha) and take up spraying on panicle. 500-600 liter of spraying chemical is required per ha.

Management of case worm

  • Drain water from the field.

  • Keep kerosene soaked gunny bags in the field water and dislodge the leaf cases by passing rope or branches of thorny plant.

  • The use of correct fertilizer application, wider spacing (30 × 20 cm), and early planting.

  • Spiders, dragonflies, and birds eat the adults.

  • There is a nuclear polyhedrosis virus, which is a potential control agent against the rice caseworm.

  • 10-12 DAS 1ml of methyl parathion 50EC or 0.5ml fenitrothion 100EC or 0.9ml diazinon 60EC or 1.3ml monocrotophos 36SL or 2ml chloropyriphos 20 EC or 1.5ml fenthoate 50EC or 2ml phasalone 35EC or 2ml quinolphos 25EC in 1 liter of water for spraying crop.

  • Transplanted field require 600liter of water/ha spraying chemical or carbofuron 3% 20kg/ha granules can be used.

Author Details

Dr. Hadi Husain Khan1, Dr. Mohd. Monobrullah2, Dr. Anjani Kumar3, Dr. Ram Eshwar Prasad4, Dr. Kinkar Kumar5 and Lalta Prasad Verma6

1Scientist (Plant Protection), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sitamarhi - 843320 (Bihar), India.

2Principal Scientist, Division of Crop Research, ICAR-RCER, Patna - 800014 (Bihar), India.

3Director, ICAR-ATARI, Zone-IV, Patna- 801506 (Bihar), India.

4Senior Scientist & Head, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sitamarhi - 843320 (Bihar), India.

5Scientist (Animal Science), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sitamarhi - 843320 (Bihar), India.

6SRF (NICRA Project), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sitamarhi - 843320 (Bihar), India.

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