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Banana Cultivation in India: Here’s a Complete Guide for Beginners

Sangeeta Soni
Sangeeta Soni
Banana Crop

Banana considered a globally important fruit. Annually, 14.2 Million Tonnes of banana is produced in India, i.e. more than any other country in the world. In India, banana fruit is the second most important fruit after the mango, and Maharashtra ranks first in the production of bananas. And, Jalgaon in Maharashtra is called Banana city, as it contributes near to two-thirds of Maharashtra’s banana production.  

Banana evolved in the humid tropical regions of South East Asia, including India as one of its centers of origin. Presently, banana is being cultivated throughout the warm tropical regions of the world, in about 120 countries.  

Here is your guide to growing a banana crop

Climatic Conditions 

As mentioned earlier, being a tropical crop, banana needs warm, humid, and rainy climate. Temperature ranging from 10 to 40-degree Celsius and the relative humidity 80% and above is suitable for growing bananas. The banana plant is sensitive towards dew and frost, and cannot bear arid conditions. Strong dry winds can affect the growth of the banana plant, its yield and, fruit quality.  

Soil 

Banana is considered a foodie or heavy feeder plant, so soil fertility is really important for it. So, soil for bananas should be rich loamy soil with good drainage, adequate fertility, moisture, and plenty of organic matter. The suitable pH range is 6 to 8. Nutritionally deficient, Saline solid and very sandy soil is not suitable for banana cultivation 

Propagation of Banana Crop 

Because edible bananas do not produce viable seeds, banana farms cannot be replicated by seed. Suckers and sword suckers with narrow leaves are thus used for banana propagation. Banana has a shortened underground stem known as a Rhizome that bears many buds. Each of these buds sprouts and develops its own pseudostem and bulbous rhizome, which is employed for propagation.

Plantation 

Selected suckers must be harvested for the plantation by cutting the roots and surface layer to remove any decaying parts. Following the necessary treatment of suckers, the plantation can be completed using one of two generally utilized plantation methods, namely the Pit method or the Furrow method. Planting can take place from February to May in South India, and from July to August in North India. And, in South India, except during the summer.

Fertilizer & Manure 

Banana is quick growing and short-lived plant. So, for good care, better to apply quick-growing fertilizers. All over India, sufficient nutrient requirements can be fulfilled by using 20 Kg FYM, 200g N, 60 g P, 300 g K per banana plant. The banana plant responds very well to the application of nutrients. And, in the above-mentioned nutrients, N is provided in three doses during the second, third, and fifth months. And some changes can be done as per the location requirement.  

After Plantation Care 

  • Propping-In this traditional practice, proper support is given to the plants through the bamboos, to protect the plants from falling down in case of heavy winds. 

  • Desuckering-In this, unwanted suckers developed near the base of the plant are removed by cutting them. 

Wrapping or Bunch Cover 

Too much sun exposure is also not good for the plants, so to protect the plants from sunburn, hot wind, and dust, the bunch is covered. And this wrapping or covering is also done to improve the fruit color.  

Harvesting 

  • For dwarf varieties, harvesting is done after 12 to 15 months of the plantation. And for tall varieties, harvesting is done after 15 to 18 months. 

  • Maturing signs include plumpness of the fruit, completely filled angles, slightly metallic sound when tapped, and drying off of the top leaves, and color change of fruits to light green and from dark green.

  • Tall varieties yield is about 15-25 Tonnes/ha and Dwarf varieties yield is about 25-50 Tonnes/ha.

You can surely earn lakhs through Banana farming

For more farming information like this, keep visiting…!! 

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