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Banana Cultivation in India: Here’s a Complete Guide for Beginners

Sangeeta Soni
Sangeeta Soni
Banana Crop

Banana, considered as globally important fruit. Annually, 14.2 Million Tonnes of banana is produced in India, i.e. more than any other country in the world. In India, banana fruit is the second most important fruit after the mango, and Maharashtra ranks first in the production of bananas. And, Jalgaon in Maharashtra is called as Banana city, as it contributes near to two-thirds of Maharashtra’s banana production.  

Banana evolved in the humid tropical regions of South East Asia, including India as one of its centres of origin. Presently, banana is being cultivated throughout the warm tropical regions of the world, in about 120 countries.  

Here is your guide to grow banana crop

Climatic Conditions 

As mentioned earlier, being a tropical crop, banana needs warm, humid, and rainy climate. Temperature ranging from 10 to 40-degree Celsius and the relative humidity 80% and above is suitable for growing banana. Banana plant is sensitive towards dew and frost, and can-not bear arid conditions. Strong dry winds can affect the growth of banana plant, its yield and, fruit quality.  


Banana is considered as a foodie or heavy feeder plant, so soil fertility is really important for it. So, soil for banana should be rich loamy soil with good drainage, adequate fertility, moisture, and plenty of organic matter. Suitable pH range is 6 to 8. Nutritionally deficient, Saline solid and very sandy soil are not suitable for banana cultivation 

Propagation of Banana Crop 

Banana crop can-not be propagated by seed; as edible bananas do not produce viable seeds. So, for banana propagation, suckers and sword suckers with narrow leaves are used. Banana has reduced underground stem, commonly called Rhizome, and it bears several buds. Each of these buds sprouts and forms its own pseudo stem and new bulbous rhizome, and that is used for propagation.  


For the plantation, selected suckers need to be reaped, by trimming the roots and surface layer to remove the rotten part, if any. And then, after the required treatment of suckers, plantation can be done by two commonly used plantation methods, i.e., Pit method and Furrow method. Planting can be done in the month of February to May, and in North India, planting can be done in the month of July-August. And, in South India, anytime except summer.  

Fertilizer & Manure 

Banana is quick growing and short-lived plant. So, for good care, better to apply quick growing fertilizers. In all over India, sufficient nutrient requirement can be fulfilled by using 20 Kg FYM, 200g N, 60 g P, 300 g K per banana plant. Banana plant responds very well to the application of nutrients. And, in the above mentioned nutrients N is provided in three doses during second, third and fifth month. And some changes can be done as per the location requirement.  

After Plantation Care 

  • Propping-In this traditional practice, proper support is given to the plants through the bamboos, to protect the plants from falling down in case of heavy winds. 

  • Desuckering-In this, unwanted suckers developed near the base of the plant are removed by cutting them. 

Wrapping or Bunch Cover- Too much sun exposure is also not good for the plants, so to protect the plants from sunburn, hot wind, and dust, the bunch is covered. And this wrapping or covering is also done to improve the fruit colour.  


  • For dwarf varieties, harvesting is done after 12 to 15 months of plantation. And for tall varieties, harvesting is done after 15 to 18 months. 

  • Maturing signs include plumpness of the fruit, completely filled angles, slightly metallic sound when tapped, and drying off of the top leaves, and colour change of fruits to light green and from dark green.

  • Tall varieties yield is about 15-25 Tonnes/ha and Dwarf varieties yield is about 25-50 Tonnes/ha.

For more farming information like this, keep visiting…!! 

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