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Mustard Planting Season Approaches - Let’s Know about its Cultivation and Economics in Detail

Abhijeet Banerjee
Abhijeet Banerjee

Mustard has been the most profitable Rabi crop for farmers this year, as its prices have appreciated by nearly 40% since March. Cultivation interest, as a result, is expected to remain quite high for this season. So let us know the key aspects on Mustard cultivation as well as its economics. India ranks 4th amongst largest producer of oilseeds in the world with Rapeseed/mustard contributing near to 28.6% in total oilseeds production. Mustard oil is the crushed product from Mustard seed which is the third most important edible oils in the country after soybean and palm oil. Mustard seeds and its oil is used for culinary purpose and its younger leaves are often used in vegetable dishes. Mustard oil cake is another crushed product other than mustard oil, which finds use in feeding cattle. 

Varieties like brown and yellow Sarson, Raya and Toria crops come under the mustard rapeseed category. The different varieties are cultivated mainly in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, UP, Haryana and Gujarat. The oilseed crop is also grown in few areas of south like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Rajasthan contributes about 49% to the county's total mustard production, followed by UP(11%), Haryana (11%). Yellow sarson is considered as Rabi crop in Assam, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. On the other hand it is a catch crop in states of Punjab, Haryana, UP and Himachal Pradesh. Brown sarson was cultivated in most of the areas earlier, but in recent years the area under cultivation is reducing as it is getting replaced by Indian mustard. Brown sarson has two ecotypes Lotni and Toria. Toria is short duration crop sown under irrigated condition. Gobhi sarson is new emerging oilseed, it is long duration crop grown in Haryana, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh. In India nearly 98-99% of the cultivated area comprises hybrid seeds and only 1-2% of the cropped area is allocated for the normal varieties.  

Cultivation of Mustard/Rapeseed   

Soil Requirement 

  • Light to heavy soil is good for mustard and rapeseed cultivation.

  • Raya can be grown in all type of soil whereas loam to heavy soils is suitable for toria crop.

  • Sandy and loamy sand soils are suitable for Taramira crops.

Land Preparation 

  • Fine seed beds are required for good germination of crop.

  • Ploughing of soil should be done for two to three times followed by two harrowing.

  • Planking should be done after every ploughing.

  • Prepared firm, moist and uniform seed bed as it will help in uniform germination of seed.

Sowing 

  • Ideal time for sowing Mustard crop is from September to October.

  • Toria crop is normally sown between first fortnight of September and October.

  • The Taramira crop can be sown during the entire October month.

  • Raya crop is done between Mid of October to  End of November.

Spacing 

  • For rapeseed :- Row to Row distance of 30 cm and plant to plant distance of 10-15 cm.

  • For Gobhi sarson :- Row to Row distance of 45 cm and plant to plant distance of 10 cm.

Depth 

  • Depth should be kept at 4 to 5 cm.

Method of sowing 

  • Using seed drill is recommended 

Seed Rate 

  • Rapeseed :- seed rate of 1.5 kg seeds per acre.

  • Thinning operations must be done three week after sowing and maintain only healthy seedlings.

Seed Treatment 

  • Before sowing seed treatment to be done with Thiram at 3gm per kg of seeds.

Fertilizer Application (Kg/Acre) 

Crop 

UREA 

SSP 

MURIATE OF POTASH 

Toria 

55 

50 

On Soil Test Results 

Raya & Gobhi Sarson 

90 

75 

10 

Ensure the following during field preparation, 

  • Apply 70 to 100 qtl farm yard manure or well decomposed cow dung in soil.

  • For accurate fertilizer dose, soil testing is necessary.

  • For toria crop, apply Nitrogen : Phosphorus in ratio of 25:8 kg/acre in form of Urea at 55kg/acre and Super phosphate at 50kg/acre.

  • Apply Potash dose only when soil show deficiency of it.

  • For raya and gobhi sarson, apply N:P:K in ratio of 40:12:6 kg/acre in form of Urea at 90kg, SSP at 75kg and MOP at 10kg per acre.

  • For rainfed raya crop apply Urea at 33kg/acre and Super Phosphate at 50kg/acre.

  • Apply Urea just before pre-sowing irrigation.

Weed Control  

  • Weed control in Toria crop, do pre-plant incorporation of Trifluralin at 400ml/200Ltrs of water per acre.

  • For raya crop, give pre-emergence spray of Isoproturon at 400gm/200Ltr within 2 days of sowing.

Irrigation 

  • Pre-sowing irrigation should be done before sowing of seeds.

  • For getting good growth, crop required in general about three irrigation apply at interval of three weeks after sowing.

  • Good amount of organic manures should be applied in the soil, it will result in conserving moisture in soil.

Harvesting 

  • Depending variety crop takes 110 to 140 days to mature.

  • Harvest to be done when pods turn yellow and seed become hard then harvest crop.

  • Harvesting to be carried in morning hours to avoid shattering loss.

  • Cut crops close to ground with the help of sickle.

  • Stack the harvested crops for 7-10 days.

  • Complete threshing operation after proper drying .

Post-Harvest Activity  

  • Seed should be well cleaned and then it must be dried in the sun for 4-5 days.

  • When the seed gets dried properly then stored seeds in gunny bags or bin.

Popular Varieties Sown  

Toria Varieties 

  • PBT 37: Early maturity variety, and matures in 91 days. Suitable for toria-wheat cultivation. Gives average yield of 5.4 qtl/acre and seeds contains 41.7% oil.

  • TL 15: It is early maturity variety, requiring 88 days to mature and gives average yield of 4.5 qtl/acre.

  • TL 17: Harvesting can be done after 90 days. Suitable for multiple cropping. It gives average yield of 5.2 qtl/acre.

Raya 

  • RLM 619: For cultivation in irrigated and rainfed area and gets ready for harvest in 143 days. Contains 43% oil. It is resistive to white rust, blight and downy mildew and average yield is 8 qtl/acre.

  • PBR 91: Can be harvested in 145 days. It show resistant to blight, rust and insect pest and gives average yield of 8.1 quintal/acre.

  • PBR 97: Suitable for cultivation under rainfed condition. Can be harvested in 136 days. Grains medium bold with 39.8% oil content. Gives average yield of 5.2 qtl/acre. 

  • PBR 210: Suitable for timely sown and irrigated condition. Gets ready for harvest in 150 days. Average yield is 6 qtl/acre.

  • RLC 3: Tall variety, and ready for harvest in 145 days. Its average yield is about 7.3 qtl/acre. Its oil content 41.5%. 

Gobhi Sarson 

  • GSL 1: Ready to be harvested in 160 days. The crop gives average yield of 6.7 qtl/acre. Seeds contain 44.5% oil content.

  • PGSH51: Takes 162 days after sowing, for harvesting to begin. Tall and high yielding hybrid and gives average yield of 7.9 qtl/acre. Seeds contain 44.5% oil content.

Gobhi sarson (canola type): The oil of canola variety is good for human health. 

  • Hyola PAC 401: It is medium heighted crop and matures in 150 days. Seeds are brownish black and contain about 42% oil. The average yield is 6.74 qtl/acre.

  • GSC 6: Recommended for timely sown crop under irrigated condition. Seeds are bold with 39.1% oil content, and gives average yield of 6.07 qtl/acre.  

Indian Mustard 

  • RH 0749: Suitable for cultivating in northern states of Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Jammu and North Rajasthan. A yielding variety having more number of seeds per silique. Gets ready to harvest in 146-148 days. Seeds are bold and having oil percentage of 40%. It gives average yield of 10.5-11 qtl/acre.

  • RH 0406: Grown in rainfed areas. Ready to be harvested in 142-145 days. Average yield is 8.8 - 9.2 qtl/acre.

  • T 59 (Varuna): Suitable for growing under all climatic conditions. Gets Ready for harvest in 145-150 days and oil content is roughly 39%. Gives average yield of 6-8 qtl/acre. 

Mustard Varieties of Private Companies  

  • Pioneer 45S42: High yielding variety with medium maturity. Matures in 125-130 days for harvesting. Suitable under all soil conditions. Its grains are bold and high pod density. It give average yield is 12.5 qtl per acre.

  • Pioneer 45S35: High yielding and early maturing variety.  It give average yield is 12.5 qtl per acre.

  • Pioneer 45S46: High yielding and medium duration variety. Grains are bold with good oil percentage. The average yield is 12.5 qtl per acre.

Other States Varieties 

  • Pusa Agrani: Suitable for early and late sown areas, under irrigated conditions. Becomes ready to harvest in 110 days. The average seed yield is  7.2 qtl/acre with oil 40% oil content. 

  • Pusa Mustard 21: Suitable for timely sown irrigated areas. Gives average yield of 7.2-8.4 qtl/acre.

  • Pusa Mustard 24: Suitable for timely sown irrigated areas and average yield is 8-10 qtl/acre.

  • NPJ 112: Suitable for early sown areas with average yield of 6 qtl/acre.

  • Pusa Mustard 26: Suitable for late sown areas. Is Ready for harvest in 126 days. Gives average yield of 6.4 qtl/acre.

  • Pusa Mustard 28: Harvest possible in 107 days. Productivity is high compared to other variety. Oil content is near to 41.5%.

Economics of Mustard Cultivation 

It takes 2-2.5 Kgs of Hybrid seeds to be cultivated in one acre. On an average the yield per acre is 6-8 quintals. Average crop duration of these seeds is 120-125 days approximately. In India nearly 98-99% of the cultivated area comprises hybrid seeds. Therefore we shall consider the various cost incurred in planting with the Hybrid seeds.  

Hybrid varieties grown for commercial purpose are  

1. Pusa Agrani

2. Varuna

3. Pusa Mahak

4. Narendra Agethi

5. 45 S 42

6. 45 S 46

7. Shredda

8. Koral 432 

Cost of Cultivation For 1 Acre Land 

Land Preparation Cost: Ploughing through tractor is done during field preparation. Average Tractor charge to plough one acre land is Rs 1000. One labour is enough per acre for field preparation and cost of one labour is Rs.200.  

Cost of Seed: Quality seeds to be purchased for ensuring good returns. Seed rate to cultivate one acre is 2-2.5 kgs. Cost of 1 Kg of quality seeds is Rs.200. Thus cost of purchasing seed per acre is Rs.500.  

Planting Cost: 2 Laborers are normally sufficient to do the planting on an acre of land. Therefore planting cost amounts to Rs 400.  

Fertilizer and Weeding Cost: Mustard can be grown with lower use of manure and fertilizer quantities thereby lowering the overall cost. For one acre land fertilizer application cost is Rs.1200 and cost of using manure is Rs.800.  

In context to weeding cost, the charges for inter cultivation is Rs. 500 while cost of spraying herbicides is Rs.600.  

Protection Cost for Mustard Crop: Plant protection measures i.e. protecting against Saw Fly and Saw Dust totals nearly Rs.750-800 per acre.  

Miscellaneous Cost: Includes expenses on Family labor, land rent,  interest on capital, Farm Machinery Depreciation cost, electricity charges etc. for an acre Land. These costs work out to be close to Rs.1175-1200.  

Mustard Harvesting Cost Harvesting is normally done after 120-130 days of sowing. 2 Laborers are required to harvest mustard crop in an acre, with the help of sickles. Then, after the harvesting, two laborers are again required to separate the seeds through winnowing etc. Total cost mounts to Rs.800 therefore.  

Transportation Cost: Final cost is incurred over transporting the produce to nearby market for selling, which is around Rs.250-300.  

Computation of mustard production cost: 

We now compute the net expenses incurred on farming in one acre land. On an average mustard yield per acre is 5-6 quintals. But high yielding varieties and better agronomic practices can increase the yield to 6-8 quintals per acre. The workings are given in the table given below:  

Costs Incurred For 

Rs/Acre 

Land Preparation 

1200 

Seed Purchases 

500 

Sowing 

400 

Fertilizers and Manure application 

2000 (1200+800) 

Plant Protection 

800 

Miscellaneous Activities 

1200 

Weeding 

1150 (500+650) 

Harvesting 

400 

Drying and Threshing  

800 

Transportation Cost 

300 

Therefore Total Cost equals to Rs8750 per acre approximately. It is advisable to add at least 10% of total cost, considering other factors, like post-harvest losses etc. Therefore Net cost comes early Rs. 9625/acre approximately.  

As on September 4, 2020 the average grades of Mustard were being traded around Rs.5000-5500. Taking Rs.5200/qtl as the average market price, net realization for selling 6 quintals (taking minimum possible yield per acre) will be Rs.31200.  

Therefore farming of mustard in acre of land shall generate net profit of Rs.22000 (approximately).  

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