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Nano-Fertilizers: A New Way to Enhance Nutrient Use Efficiency & Crop Productivity

Nano fertilizers provide a greater role in crop production and several research studies revealed that nano fertilizers enhanced the growth, yield, and quality parameters of the crop which result in better yield and quality food products for human and animal consumption.

Sandeep Kr Tiwari
Several studies have shown that the use of nano-fertilizers significantly increases crop yield.
Several studies have shown that the use of nano-fertilizers significantly increases crop yield.

"Nano fertilizers are synthesized or modified versions of traditional fertilizers, fertilizers bulk materials, extracted from various vegetative or reproductive parts of the plant by different chemical, physical, mechanical, or biological methods with the help of nanotechnology”.

They are used to improve soil fertility, productivity, and the quality of agricultural outputs. Rock phosphate is used in nano form may increase the availability of phosphorus to the plant because direct application of rock phosphate nanoparticles on the crop may prevent fixation in the soil, similarly, there is no silicic acid, iron, and calcium for fixation of the phosphorus hence it increases phosphorus availability to the crop plants.

Important properties of nano fertilizers which facilitate higher nutrient use efficiency

The nano-fertilizers have a higher surface area which is mainly due to the very less size of particles which provide more sites to facilitate the different metabolic processes in the plant system as a result production of more photosynthates. They are highly reactive with other compounds because of their huge surface area and extremely small size. They are very soluble in several solvents, including water. Nano-fertilizers have particles that are smaller than 100 nm in size, which facilitates more penetration of the plant from the applied surface, such as soil or leaves.

Achievements of nano-fertilizers

Nano fertilizers provide a greater role in crop production and several research studies revealed that nano fertilizers enhanced the growth, yield, and quality parameters of the crop which result in better yield and quality food products for human and animal consumption. 

Yields: 

Numerous studies have shown that the use of nano-fertilizers significantly increases crop yield. This is primarily due to increased plant growth and metabolic processes like photosynthesis, which result in higher photosynthetic accumulation and translocation to the economically valuable parts of the plant. Foliar application of nanoparticles as fertilizer significantly increases in yield of the crop.

Nutritional Value: 

Nano fertilizers provide more surface area and more availability of nutrients to the crop plant which help to increase these quality parameters of the plant (such as protein, oil content, and sugar content) by enhancing the rate of reaction or synthesis process in the plant system. The application of zinc and iron to the plant increase carbohydrate, starch, IAA, chlorophyll, and protein content in the grain and Nano fe2O3 also increases photosynthesis and growth of the peanut plant.

Health:

Some nutrient is also responsible for disease resistance in the plant and due to the availability of nano nutrient to the plant, it prevents disease, nutrient deficiency, and other biotic and abiotic stress which indicate that nano fertilizers enhance the overall health of the plant. ZnO nano-particles are also helpful to plants under stress conditions. 

Advantages of nano fertilizers over traditional fertilizers

Nano fertilizers are advantageous over traditional fertilizers as they increase soil fertility yield and quality parameters of the crop, they are non-toxic and less harmful to the environment, and they minimize cost and maximize profit. Improvement in the nutritional content of crops and the quality of the taste. Optimum use of iron and increased protein content in the grain of wheat. Enhancing plant growth by resisting diseases and improving the stability of the plants by anti-bending and deeper rooting of crops also suggested that balanced fertilization to the crop plant may be achieved through nanotechnology.

Effects of nano-fertilizers on seeds germination & growth parameters of the plant

Several studies found that nano fertilizers significantly impact seed germination and seedling growth, which revealed their impact on seeds and seed life. Nano fertilizers may easily penetrate seeds and enhance nutrient availability to developing seedlings, resulting in healthier plants with longer shoots and roots. However, if the concentration is higher than the ideal level, it may delay plant germination and seedling growth. Nano fertilizers increase the availability of nutrient to the growing plant which increases chlorophyll formation, photosynthesis rate, and dry matter production and result in improve overall growth of the plant.

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