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Pearl Oyster Farming Process; Site Selection, Pearl Farming Types, Management and Economics

Chintu Das
Chintu Das
Pearl Oyster

Pearl oyster business is one of the biggest profit making businesses and can make upto 200 percent of profit. Yet, this business is neglected by most of the people because of the lack of knowledge and expertise. There is a huge opportunity and possibility in investigating raw materials in the beach front areas with high market interest. 

Pearl cultivating is getting perceived as an elective occupation for beach front anglers and youthful business visionaries to create pearl clam cultivating business as a generous financial passageway which is getting changed in the course of the most recent fifty years. This is not any more a reliant wild find cultivating however a culture of clams raising in incubators by seeding. 

Difference between freshwater and saltwater farming: 

Now let’s know about some basic difference between freshwater and saltwater farming;

Freshwater Pearl Farming: 

These are filled in mussels living in rivers and lakes of fresh waters.  

Saltwater Pearl Farming:  

In this, pearls are made by oysters living in seas or oceans. 

Site Selection: 

The site should be pollution free and theft proof. One way to make sure that it is theft free is through the physical presence of an individual in the site, where the corals exist. The water should be liberated from rough water that works up sand and residue, and no freshwater resources should be located near to the firm. The site should have a distance of 70 to 100 feet from the reef areas as the same are filled with predators. Also the depth of the site must be accurate for efficient working of the firm, 

Water currents are productive in oyster farming sites as the same helps in supplying oxygen and needed nutrients. Bit of current on both upper and lower sides of the farm site is very beneficial for pearl farming. 

Types of pearl farming: 

Pearl farming requires structures in order to hold shells in the water. Ideally, there are three types: 

- Tahitian Longline Approach: 

A rope line is fixed inside the water with its ends tied to rocks or anchors. The rope line should be made of either polypropylene or nylon and the size should be 18 mm and accordingly anchor lines should be 12 mm. Anchor lines are to be fixed at an interval of 20 meters on either side of the man rope line. Anchor lines keep the main line in place and do not let it drift with the water currents. Buoys and floats are used for keeping the main line afloat and straight. The man rope line will hold the oyster shells and be farmed by using a variety of containers such as chaplets, net pocket panels etc.  

- Floating Rafts Approach: 

 Countries like Japan & Indonesia use this approach for farming pearls. Rafts are placed at water sites with calm waters, considerable water currents and free from thefts. The raft uses styrofoam floats and drums to stay afloat. Materials used in this approach must be chosen wisely so that it can endure seawater and the overall environment. Proper anchoring is required for it to stay at one place. Any kind of pearl oyster containers such as net pocket panels, lantern baskets, baskets, box cages, and rope hanging can be used. 

- Underwater Trestles Approach: 

The structure is like that of the floating raft strategy, in trestle technique the structure is worked with lumber or PVC lines or steel lines and all the materials that are utilized should be impervious to corrosion. Trestles can be made using two different ways; low trestles and higher trestles relying upon the water profundity and depth. 

Management of Pearl Oyster: 

For managing a pearl farm effectively, one needs to check the farm regularly. By doing so, you will know if there are any damaged or missing lines. Also, check for any missing shells from the site. 

Next step is to regularly clean the site because of the amount of unnecessary organisms that breed on the lines, shells and other hanging materials. While cleaning, you have to take special care as pearl oysters tend to get stressed after cleaning is done. Frequent cleaning can be avoided and should be done once in a month. 


Generally harvesting is done physically by extricating pearls either by cutting or isolating the two valves and pressing the pearl out. Commercial farmers reuse the shells via cautiously opening the pearl-sac without harming the organs and tissues. Pearls that are gathered should be washed in distilled water followed with cleaning by scouring with refined salt and washed again completely in distilled water. Pearls at that point are arranged as per size, surface, shape, shading, brilliance, and different qualities. 


Revenue and Profits 

Below pearl farming economics is based on a raft farming approach of 7 x 7 m farm size: 

No.of Pearls Harvested 


Sale of Harvested Pearls (Rs.) 


Cost of 437 pearls given to fishermen as labor charges 


Total Revenue 


Total Investment Cost (one-time investment) 


Net Profit in the first Harvest 


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