Agripedia

What Constitutes ORGANIC MANURE

The word "organic" pertains to the use of non-chemical fertilizers as manure and compost and the word "manure" refers to any natural substance for fertilizing the soil, especially dung or refuse. Plants are built up from the food they get, either through the chlorophyll process or from the soil. During their growing process, plants take out many elements from soil. Hence, new food has to be added from time to time.

No organic matter may be burnt or thrown away, but must be put back into the field. This is the way nature restores and improves itself. The form of returning organic matter to the soil may take many shape: composting, mulching, green manuring, etc. Chemical fertilizers or pesticides are used minimum.

Organic matter is the most important constituent of any soil because it is in organic matter that all the microbes and other minute forms of life exist. It releases plant food slowly and steadily, the way plants need to be fed. It will not leach away.

Nature has grown plants for million of years With nothing but organic fertilizers. Farm yard manure (FYM), plant residues, compost, cotton seed, etc. are natural fertilizers. 

Organic matter in the soil can be both living and dead. Micro-organisms and vegetation (the soil fungi and plant roots) are living things which are vital in carrying out chemical and physical changes in the soil and they are just as important once they have died. It is from the dead remains that the plant nutrients are derived in nature by decomposing them. They improve the soil structure and makes the soil healthy.

The organic manures are of various types as described in Table, With their nutrient composition.

Table :  Types of organic manures (Average Composition)

Sl.No

Material

Nitrogen (%)

Phosphate (%)

Potash (%)

1. Bulky organic manures

 

 

 

 

 

 Farm yard manure

0.5-1.5

0.4-0.8

0.5-1.9

 

 

Compost (urban)

1.0-2.0

1.0

1.5

 

 

Compost (rural)

0.4-0.8

0.1-0.2

0.6-0.8

 

 

Green manures

0.5-0.7

0.1-0.2

0.6-0.8

 

2. Oil cakes

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Non edible cakes

 

 

 

 

 

 Castor cake

5.5-5.8

1.8-1.9

1.0-1.1

 

 

Mahua cake

2.5-2.6

0.1-0.9

1.8-1.9

 

 

Karanj cake

3.9-4.0

0.9-1.0

1.3-1.4

 

 

Neem cake

5.2-5.3

1.0-1.1

1.4-1.5

 

 

Safflower cake

4.8-4.9

1.4-1.5

1.2-1.3

 

 

(b) Edible cakes

 

 

 

 

 

Coconut cake

3.0-3.2

1.8-1.9

1.6-1.7

 

 

Cotton seed

6.4-6.5

2.8-2.9

2.1-2.2

 

 

Groundnut cake

7.0-7.2

1.5-1.6

1.3-1.4

 

 

Linseed

5.5-5.6

1.4-1.5

1.2-1.3

 

 

Sesamum cake

6.2-6.3

2.0-2.1

1.2-1.3

 

3. Animal manure

 

 

 

 

 

Dried blood

10.0-12.0

1.0-1.5

0.6-0.8

 

 

Fish manure

4.0-10.0

3.0-9.0

0.3-1.5

 

 

Bone meal (raw)

3.4

20-25

-

 

 

Night soil

1.2-1.3

0.8-1.0

0.4-0.5

 

 

Cattle dung + urine

0.60

0.15

0.45

 

 

Horse dung + urine

0.70

0.25

0.55

 

 

Sheep dung + urine

0.95

0.35

1.00

 

              


Method of composting also comes under organic manure which involves fermentation of organic residues in the presence of moisture in closed conditions: It increases the availability of plant nutrients, destroys pathogens and eliminates the unfavorable odors. Different methods of composting are described. The average nutrient content of some common composts of animal and plant origin are given in table.

Table :  Average nutrient content of some compost

Slink

Manures

N (%)

P2O5

K2O

1

Farm yard manure

0.8

0.41

0.74

 

a. Poultry manure

2.87

2.93

2.35

 

b. Rural compost

1.22

1.08

1.47

 

c. Urban compost

1.24

1.98

1.07

2

Farm compost

 

 

 

 

a. Mixed farm wastes

0.87

0.59

2.22

 

b. Mixed dry residues

0.9

0.45

1.95

 

c. Cotton stalk

1.61

0.48

3.38

 

d. Water hyacinth compost

2.0

1.0

2.3

3

Synthetic FYM

 

 

 

 

a. Paddy straw

1.59

1.34

3.37

 

b. Dry grass/weeds

1.9

0.55

1.09

 

c. Cotton waste and ground nut husk

1.62

1.04

1.26

 

d. Wheat straw

2.9

2.05

0.9

 

e. Vermi compost

1.6

2.2

0.67

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