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Black Rice: The new Super food

Black Rice
Black Rice

Black rice is also called Forbidden rice is Emperor's rice. It belongs to the genus Oryza. Due to containing its high level of antioxidants and advanced nutritional value, it is also named as the new super food. It is a medium grain, non glutinous heirloom, dark purplish- black color and slightly sweet flavors in taste. It is named Emperor's rice or Forbidden rice because it was once reserved for Chinese emperor to ensure his good health and long life. Nowadays, black rice is picking up in popularity due to its high nutritional value. In India, black rice is cultivated in only few areas especially in North East India as in Manipur, Assam state etc. and some parts of other states such as Orissa, Maharastra and Uttar Pradesh. In U.P. some parts of Saharanpur, Gorakhpur, Chandauli and Prayagraj districts etc.

Properties:

The demand for black rice has been increasing day by day due to its several health benefits and high nutritive quality.

  • It has great antioxidant properties.

  • It has several phenolic compounds.

  • It has anticancer property.

  • It prevents cardiovascular and nerve diseases.

  • It has anti inflammatory actions.

  • It has a weight and fat controlling properties.

Nutritional value:

Black rice has higher amount of protein, vitamins and minerals as compared to the other daily used white rice.

  • Black rice contains 8.89 gram are protein per hundred gram as compared to White Rice which contains only 6.2 gram protein.

  • It has iron, zinc, copper, carotenes, and good amount of Vitamins and also contains 18 initial amino acids.

  • It is beneficial for diabetic patient because of its low glycemic index.

  • Black rice has higher amount of antioxidants than white rice.

Black Rice Crop

Although being the least popular than other rice varieties, it has highest overall antioxidant properties, capacity and activities. Hence, adding black rice in our diet is simply to protect ourselves from diseases (Sharma S.K., 2019).

Table1: Nutritional superiority of black rice over all the other types of rice (Serving size: 100 g):-

Contents

Rice Varieties

White Rice

Brown Rice

Black Rice

Protein

6.8g

7.9g

8.9g

Carbohydrate

79.2g

76.2g

75.6g

Iron

1.2g

2.2g

3.5g

Fibre

0.6g

2.8g

4.9g

Cholesterol

2.7mg

0.6mg

0mg



Black Rice contains a high amount of protein, iron and fibre over all the other types of rice.

Table 2: Comparison in terms of antioxidants:

Antioxidants

 

Rice Varieties

White Rice

Brown Rice

Black Rice

Anthocyanin

Nil

Nil

3.5mg

Flavonols

21µg

24µg

0.5mg

y- oryzonols

8.2 µg

12.3µg

0.8mg

Caroteinoids

_

_

6.5µg

Tocopherols

_

1.7µg

21.5µg

Tocotrienols

Nil

Nil

0.06mg

Black Rice
Black Rice

Origin and Cultivation:

The origin of black rice has not been clear but its cultivars are found in locations of scattered throughout the Asia. In India, black rice variety is grown in Manipur and Assam and few other states as Maharashtra, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh etc. In Manipur, it is called Chakhao-Ambui in local language. Chakhao means delicious and Ambui means black that is delicious black grain food. In Tamilnadu, called as Karuppu Arisi. In Maharstra called as Kalabhat. In Odisha, known as Kalabhati. Some Japanese researchers found a change in the gene which controls anthocyanin rearrangement and this mutation occurs in subspecies of rice that's why its colour is purplish black due to its high anthocyanin concentration. This rice has been replicated and transferred to the other species through cross breeding and now it is grown in South-east Asia and it also grown in some part of Southern United state and some western countries.

Types:

1. Italian black rice: It is rich in buttery flavor and has long grain which combined black rice with Italian rice.

2. Black japonica rice: It has earthy flavor with sweet mild spiciness flavors. It has black short length grain.

3. Thailand black Jasmine rice: It belongs to Thailand combined of Chinese black rice with Jasmine rice. It is medium rice grain and give subtle floral aroma when coocked.

4. Black Jasmine rice: It is short rice grain with sticky nature and sweet flavors hence also known as Black sticky rice. It is often used to make sweet dishes in India.

Black Rice

Varieties: Some varieties are growing in India which has been listed below: 

1. Burma black

2. Kalabhat

3. Kala namak

4. Chakhao

5. Mani Barua.

6. Kalabhati

Production:  Black rice has been produced and eaten all over Asian countries. In India, it is mostly grown in Manipur, Odisha, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh and some other parts of states. The leading producer countries of black rice are listed below:

1.

China

:

148.87 mmT

2.

India

:

112.91 mmT

3.

Indonesia

:

37.21 mmT

4.

Bangladesh

:

32.65 mmT

5.

Thailand

:

20.37 mmT

6.

Burma

:

13.21 mmT

7.

Philippines

:

12.34 mmT

Conclusion: Black rice is rich in antioxidants and high nutritional contents of carbohydrate, fibre, vitamins and minerals. It is beneficial for curing several harmful diseases such as cancer, diabetes, dermatitis and asthama etc. So it is not just a food but it is a new superfood. Black rice production and its consumption can boost up both economic status as well as the health concern status for any developing country. Thus, black rice is a new series of rice varieties showing the good result and wish for superior nutritional quality food in future and the higher cultivation value as per the present scenario bring a new change in the cultivation of rice in India and around the world.

Author details
Gaurav Shukla1*& Prabhat Ranjan Pandey1
Corresponding Author:gauravshukla9044@gmail.com
1*1 Ph.D.ScholarDepartment of Agronomy & Department of Soil science,  Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110,

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