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All you need to know about Beetroot Cultivation

Chintu Das
Chintu Das
beetroot plant

Beetroot is best known for its antioxidants and its cancer curing qualities. It is very easy to cultivate and is one of most grown vegetable in India as well as the world. Regionally in India beetroot is called by many names such as bita in Marathi, dumpamokka in Telegu, salada in Gujrati etc.

Climate for Beetroot cultivation  

Beetroot can be grown all around the year under cool circumstances for optimum cultivation. However over exposure to cold temperatures can lead to further problems in cultivation such as slow growth. Beetroot can be grown under hot weather as well, however in doing so the plant loses its colour and quality.

Soil Requirement

Generally beetroot can be grown on many types of soils; however loamy soil is considered the best out of all the varieties. Anything between 6.3 to 7.5 pH levels is considered good for growing beetroots. Too much acidic soil is not good for beetroot cultivation.

Propagation of Beetroot

Beetroot farming is mostly done through seeds. Seeds are sown at a depth of 1.5 to 2 cm and at a distance of 6 to 7 cm are kept between them. Each row should have a minimum distance of 35 cm between them. Mostly farming starts between mid of April and mid of July, however might vary from place to place due to different climatic conditions prevailing in those places. Constant watering should be done for an effective and efficient cultivation of beetroots. It takes around 15 days before the seedlings will start to appear above ground. When the seedlings reach a height of around 4 cm, thinning is required i.e. removal of weak seedlings and a distance of 8 to 10 cm is to be maintained between each seedling. The plant at its maturity reaches a height of 8 to 9 cm and takes around 2 months to do so.

Pest and Weed Control

Weeds hampers and decreases beetroot yield and hence should be kept in control. Frequent shallow hoeing should be practiced to keep a check on weeds. Mostly Beetroot is free from any kinds of pests or disease; however the most common one found is leaf spot. Rotation of crops between beetroot cultivation and other cultivation in the same garden can be a way to overcome this disease.

Beetroot Harvesting  

First harvesting begins when beetroot reaches around 9 weeks into the cultivation cycle. At this stage, the bulbs reach a size of 1 inch in diameter and are mostly used for preparing salads because of its tenderness. Rest of the cultivation grows further and reaches full maturity of 3 inches in diameter. At this stage all of the cultivation is harvested and stored. If the growth is allowed any further, the beetroots becomes woody and looses its taste. Another way to find out if the beetroot has fully matured or not is when the folliage or the top part of the beetroot starts to falter. In India, most of the harvesting is done by hands; however the same is done by machines in advanced countries. After harvesting, all of the beetroots are washed, segregated and packed for better self life. Proper packaging reduces water loss during shipment and storage.


Fresh beets are not to be kept in a fridge more than 7 days. Keeping 1 inch of the stem intact to the beet keeps it fresh for a longer time. No soil should be present in the roots if the beets are to be stored for a longer time in a deep cooler facility. While storing, sprouting should be given proper eye as it leads to decaying of the beet.

Beetroot cultivation is a viable option for both home and commercial growers. Optimum profits can be made by the cultivator due to its demand and medicinal benefits.

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