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Pear Cultivation Guide: Top Varieties, Climate Requirements, Intercropping, Disease Management and Harvesting

Chintu Das
Chintu Das

One of the less popular fruits among the masses is “Pear” commonly known as “Nashpati”found in the market all around the year. The harvesting season for pear in India ends around September, however imports start pouring in that time period and make pear available all throughout the year in our country. 

Pear belongs to the Rosaceae family and Pyrus genus. A total of more than 3000 varieties are available around the world of which India produces more than 20 varieties. As per history, China introduced fruits like pear and peach to India several centuries ago. In India, pear cultivation can be found in Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. 

Cultivation Process 

- Soil Requirements: 

Pear cultivation can be done on an assortment of soil extending from sandy loam to clay loam. Best outcomes can be achieved, when cultivation is done in deep soil with good drainage. The soil should not contain a soil pan or a dense layer of soil below the first layer of soil. Pear grows best in neutral or slightly acidic soil and the pH range should not cross 7.5. 

- Varieties: 

Some of the varieties include William, Kashmir Nakh, Vicar of Wakefield, Beurre D Amanlis, Goshbagu, Beurre Hardy, Keifer, China Pear etc.  

Climate requirement: 

Pear can grow in severe climatic conditions. It can withstand freezing temperatures of -25 degrees as well as high temperatures of more than 40 degrees. Chilling period is different for each variety of pear. Lowlands do not suit pear cultivation as the spring frost can hamper the flowering process. 

Season for planting: 

Planting season is different for both plains and hilly regions. For plains it ranges between December and February and for hilly areas, it ranges between March and April. 

Land and Planting: 

The area of land should be free of shrubs or stones or any stagnant water. Plough the soil and level it to make it best for planting. Land topography and the variety determines the system of planting. However rectangular or square system of planting is majorly followed in the plains and contour system is followed in the hilly regions.  

Planting distance is decided based on the variety of pear, soil type, root stock, climate and system of planting. Spacing of 6 X 6 metre is followed for commercial cultivation. Pit size of 60 cm X 60 cm X 60 cm is prepared and should be filled with soil and farmyard manure and around 20 to 25 grams of aldrin or BHC dust. Planting basins should be created immediately and the soil level should be kept a bit high near to the trunk to avoid unnecessary spillage of water onto the trunk. Put water immediately to settle into the soil.

Propagation: 

Propagation can be done through seeds, a year old grafts, rooted cuttings, root stock etc.  

Training and Pruning: 

Pear cultivation is done through central leader systems, which can freely stand or can stand with the help of a post or wire system. In the central leader system, around 5 branches are developed in the first 3 to 4 years. Then the main branch is allowed to be promoted and the rest of the branches are kept below the main branch to form a conical shape. For pruning, a little bit of thinning is required along with the removal of dead and broken branches. Training and pruning for pear mostly similar to that of apple. 

Fertilizers: 

Within three years: Cow dung used: around 15-20 kg, Urea: around 150-300 gram, SSP: 250-600 gram and MOP: 200-450 gram. 

Four to Six years: Cow dung used: around 20-35 kg, Urea: around 350-600 gram, SSP: 750-1150 gram and MOP: 550-900 gram. 

Seven to nine years: Cow dung used: around 40-65 kg, Urea: around 650-900 gram, SSP: 1350-1800 gram and MOP: 1000-1300 gram. 

Ten and above years: Cow dung used: around 60 kg, Urea: around 950 gram, SSP: 1900 gram and MOP: 1500 gram. 

Irrigation: 

Watering starts with the pits and then planting is done. Immediate watering should be done after planting to settle the trunk. Leave it like that for another 2 to 3 days before watering the plants again. Successive irrigation is to be done on a needed basis. In summers, irrigation has to be done in an interval of 5 to 7 days and in winters, the changes to around 15 days. The soil moisture gripping capacity also matters to determine the interval of irrigation of the plants. 

Inter cropping:  

Some of the crops include Mash, Moong, Wheat, Gram etc. 

Weed Control: 

Weed control is done by spraying Diuron; 1600 grams per acre of land after ploughing. Post emergence weed control can be done by Glyphosate; 1200 milliliter per 200 liter of water to be sprayed per acre of land. 

Pest and Diseases: 

Some of the pests include Spider Mite, Hopper, Aphid and Thrips etc. Some diseases include Pear Scab and root rot. 

After pruning is done, spray Prophylactic along with copper fungicides and methyl demeton for better results. 

Harvesting: 

Harvesting can be done when the fruit is still green for long distance selling points and for local selling, ready to eat i.e. fully ripe fruits to be harvested. Fruits can be stored into layers in cartons, wooden boxes.   

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