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Hibiscus Cultivation: Popular Varieties, Soil, Climate Requirement, Irrigation & More

If you are planning to grow hibiscus in your garden but don't know how to start, then this article is for you! Read all about hibiscus cultivation from climate requirements to irrigation in this article.

Sandeep Kr Tiwari
There are several improved hybrid hibiscus varieties with various colors available, including Rock Hibiscus, Roselle, Rose in Sharon, Abelmosk, etc.
There are several improved hybrid hibiscus varieties with various colors available, including Rock Hibiscus, Roselle, Rose in Sharon, Abelmosk, etc.

Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the family, Malvaceae, and one of the beautiful flower plants that may grow up to 15 feet tall and 6 feet. This plant with large flower tropical appearance and medium-sized glossy green leaves. Hibiscus flower colors range from yellow to peach to red. These flowering plants may be cultivated in containers, open fields, greenhouses, and poly houses in addition to pots and other containers. Where there is enough water and sunlight available, these flowers may be produced all year round.

Rosa-Sinensis, or "Chinese Rose," is the scientific name of hibiscus. Hibiscus flower tea is incredibly well-known all around the world. Additionally, cosmetics and herbal treatments both include hibiscus. It is possible to make money from commercial cultivation with the right plant management, care, and marketing techniques. Most people in India grow these flowers in pots or containers for decorative purposes.

Hibiscus Varieties

There are several improved hybrid hibiscus varieties with various colors available, including Rock Hibiscus, Roselle, Rose in Sharon, Abelmosk, etc.

Climate Required for Hibiscus Cultivation

Hibiscus needs 4 to 8 months with nights that are at least 20°C. To avoid early flowering during the first five months of growth, it also needs 12–13 hours of sunshine. During their first four months of growth, hibiscus plants need a monthly rainfall of between 5" and 10".

Soil Requirement for Hibiscus Cultivation

Hibiscus plants prefer sandy loam but not heavy soils; rich in organic content, growers may produce a lot of flowers. Regular grade potting soil with garden compost added is the best foundation for these plants when cultivated in pots or containers. Composed cow dung, composted bark, and gritty peat should be combined to form this. 

These plants cannot survive waterlogging situations, therefore make sure the soil drains effectively. The soil that the hibiscus loves is neutral to slightly acidic. The pH levels of these soils between 5.5 and 6.5 are ideal for these plants' growth. It is advisable to get a soil test done if this crop is grown commercially on a wide basis.

Propagation, Seed Treatment, and Planting in Hibiscus Cultivation

Hibiscus is often propagated by both seeds and cuttings. Take a sprig of 5 to 6 inches in length from a young branch, leaving the top of the branch with only a couple of leaves. Wet the bottom end of the cutting with liquid fertilizer to ensure optimal root production. This softwood may be grown in pots or other containers with soil that drains properly. After placing the container or pot with the cuttings in a somewhat shaded area and covering it with a plastic bag since direct sunshine might dry up the cuttings. Cuttings take 8 to 10 weeks to take root. Use utility knives to make small nicks in the seeds before soaking them in water overnight and planting them into the prepared pot or container.

Irrigation

As Hibiscus plants are tropical, these flowers prefer consistent hydration and sunshine for better growth. The soil type and season determine whether to irrigate. It has to be watered every day during the hot and dry seasons. When the top leaves start to droop and become yellow, the plant is not receiving enough water. Make sure there won't be any standing water during the rainy season because this causes root rot.

Manures and Fertilizers Requirement

For healthy flowering, hibiscus plants require a lot of nutrients. Use a fertilizer with a high potassium content in the summer. You may either add high potassium compost to the soil or use a slow-release fertilizer once a month or a diluted liquid fertilizer once a week. High blossoming may be achieved by adding garden compost to the soil or by using a fertilizer with a low phosphorus content. Plant fertilization is not necessary for the winter.

Pruning in Hibiscus Cultivation

The ideal period to prune hibiscus plants is from August to October. To promote or encourage the growth of new shoots and buds, pruning should be done. Remove all the weak and sideways-growing branches from the plant to bring out its best shape, and attempt to preserve three to four major upright-growing branches. Cut back a hibiscus plant in the early spring to prevent it from growing too large.

Diseases and Insects in Hibiscus Cultivation

The most frequent pests and diseases in hibiscus cultivation include spider mites, Mealybugs, aphids, and stem, and root rot. These may be checked by giving the plant a once-weekly forceful blast of lukewarm water. It's also crucial to clean the undersides of leaves. Avoid overwatering and make sure the plants have adequate soil moisture to avoid the disease root rot. Use the proper chemical control by getting in touch with your local floriculture department if any diseases or insect conditions are growing worse.

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